WC10 Posters

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Poster files added where available. If you would like your poster file to be added to this list, please email it to Kate Morrison.

Sunday, July 22 - Poster session #1 

Monday, July 23 - Poster Session #2

 

 

 

Sunday, July 22 - Poster session #1

Behavioral Medicine

1. A Look at Body Mass Index, Experiential Avoidance, Mindfulness, Emotional Dysregulation, and Weight-related Excessive Behaviors in a College Population
Subtopic: Obesity
Tamara Loverich, Ph.D., Eastern Michigan University
Matt Sabo, M.S., Eastern Michigan University
Ashley Wiedemann, M.S., Eastern Michigan University

A correlation between experiential avoidance and BMI was reported in a previous study. This study sought to replicate that finding in a college population and to examine whether BMI could be effectively predicted through experiential avoidance, mindfulness, and emotional dysregulation. The relationships among these variables and related excessive behaviors including binge eating and smoking were evaluated in a group of 220 undergraduates. Preliminary analyses indicate that the relationship between EA and BMI is not as strong in this sample as was reported by another research group; however, the relationships among EA, mindfulness, emotional dysregulation and excessive behaviors are significant and in the expected directions. More complex analyses of these data, implications, and future directions for this research will be presented. Special attention will be given to discussing levels of BMI as grouping variables and impact on outcomes.

2. Implicit cognitive processes in people with seizures
Subtopic: IRAP, Non-epileptic attack disorder.
Lian Dimaro, B.Sc., University of Nottingham, UK
Markus Reuber, M.D. Ph.D., University of Sheffield, UK
Ian Brown, D.Clin.Psy., Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, UK
David Dawson, D.Clin.Psy., University of Lincoln

Current research on non-epileptic seizures offers a complex psychological aetiology, however does not address implicit processes or offer empirical evidence for the theory of repressed emotion or unconscious awareness. Two constructs that are highlighted in existing implicit cognition research are anxiety and self-esteem. The implicit relational assessment procedure supersedes earlier implicit measures and was utilised to examine these implicit constructs in people with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures. From a relational frame theory perspective, this study aims to give clinicians a better understanding of non-epileptic seizures, with the hope that psychological interventions can be tailored to achieve better outcomes, and in turn lower the financial and psychosocial cost to both patients and healthcare providers.

3. ACT for Weight Loss Plan Adherence
Subtopic: Weight Loss Plan Adherence
Julie E. Angiola, M.S., Ph.D. Candidate, Psychology Department, University of Wyoming and Geisinger Medical Center (Adult Behavioral Medicine Resident)
Anne M. Bowen, Ph.D., School of Nursing, University of Wyoming

Overweight and obesity are an increasing problem among adults in the United States. Research suggests that a psychological intervention specifically aimed at addressing experiential avoidance of distressing thoughts, feelings, and memories may result in sustained weight loss. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) decreases experiential avoidance, thus creating psychological flexibility, which may in turn, lead to an ability to endure cravings, emotional eating, and negative self-talk. Furthermore, ACT empowers individuals to commit to behaviors congruent with their specific concept of valued living; for those looking to lose weight these values may be better health, arrived at through food journaling and increased exercise, and engaging in a greater breadth of experiences (e.g., being able to go on a city walking tour with a spouse).
The area where many individuals attempting weight loss appear to “struggle” is in long-term adherence to weight loss plans. Therefore, we specifically recruited participants who had difficulty maintaining weight loss motivation. The study, of single-subject, multiple baseline design, enrolled six current Weight Watchers® (WW) members who had been “struggling” to adhere to WW for at least the past month. The intervention consisted of four, once weekly, 50-minute ACT sessions. Sessions were tailored to address specific barriers to adherence including one’s “minding” in the context of journaling, or “tracking,” mindful eating, and discovery of personally salient values. We hypothesized that the intervention would decrease experiential avoidance and increase valued living. Thus, we hoped to create greater food and weight-related psychological flexibility to garner better adherence to WW. Date will be presented for baseline, intervention sessions, 1-week post-treatment, 1-month follow-up, and 3-month follow-up.

4. Do Telephone-Delivered Self-Management Interventions for Chronic Pain in Persons with Disabilities Promote Pain-Related Acceptance that Contributes to Treatment Gains?
Subtopic: Chronic Pain
Sarah J. Sullivan, University of Washington
Dawn M. Ehde, University of Washington
Judith Turner, University of Washington
Tiara Dillworth, University of Washington

Self-management interventions for patients with chronic pain have been demonstrated effective in improving important pain-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore whether such interventions decrease distress by increasing pain-related acceptance (willingness to experience pain in the service of pursuing valued goals). Individuals with chronic pain and multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or amputation (N = 135; 61% female; age M = 54.11, SD = 10.4 years) were randomized to two different types of 8-session telephone-delivered chronic pain self-management interventions. We used hierarchical linear regression analyses to evaluate whether pre-posttreatment change in pain-related acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire) was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms (PHQ-8), controlling for pre-treatment depressive symptoms and pre-posttreatment change in pain intensity (mean of three ratings over one week). Pre-post increases in acceptance were associated with lower depression scores at post-treatment (β = -.15, p < .01, ΔR2 = .02), controlling for baseline depression (β = .79, p < .001, ΔR2 = .58) and pre-post change in pain intensity (β = .13, p < .05, ΔR2 = .03). Further investigation of the extent to which pain-related acceptance mediates effects of various chronic pain self-management interventions is warranted.

5. Application of the Six Core Processes of ACT to a Fitness Walking Program
Subtopic: Cardio-respiratory Fitness
Neville Galloway-Williams, M.S., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Emily C. Martin, M.S., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Richard S. Winett, Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Emerging research suggests that ACT is an effective therapy for a number of health-related issues, including pain, obesity, epilepsy, and smoking. The theoretical underpinnings of ACT seem to render it particularly appropriate in merging well with behavioral medicine. The authors of the current study sought to target cardiorespiratory fitness and developed a treatment manual to promote fitness walking. The six core processes were applied in discussions and exercises specifically adapted for fitness walking. In particular, participants were encouraged to identify values related to fitness as well as associated goals and behaviors and to foster present moment contact with feelings about exercise. The program encourages defusion from negative thoughts about the state of one’s health, acceptance of internal barriers to walking and a view of self-as-context in order to be mindful of thoughts while walking as well as thoughts about walking.

6. Adding Internet-delivered interventions to a pain management program: Experiences from a randomized controlled clinical trial
Subtopic: Pain, Internet
Nina Bendelin, MSc, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden
Marie Blom, MSc, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden
Martin Södermark, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden

Background: Longstanding pain is central in much suffering. Studies have shown small to medium effect sizes, e.g. for pain management programs and acceptance-based interventions, and more research is needed.
Design: Patients participating in a 6-week acceptance-based multidisciplinary pain management program (PMP) in the Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden, are asked to participate in a randomized controlled trial. The hypothesis is that the participants will benefit from Internet-delivered interventions added during and after the PMP.
Results: The trial is not yet finished so data will not be presented. However, during the 1½ years the trial has been going on, we have learnt a lot. In this poster we share our experiences as reseachers and clinical psychologists, both the do's, don'ts and how to's. We hope it might make the bumpy road a little smoother for those that plan to use internet-delivered interventions for patients with or without longstanding pain, and for those doing a RCT in a clinical setting.

Clinical Interventions and Interests

7. Neuroticism, Symptoms of Psychological Distress, and Life Satisfaction: The Indirect Effects of Experiential Avoidance
Subtopic: Depression, Anxiety, Experiential Avoidance
Thomas A. Altro, B.S., University of Central Florida
Jonathan C. Mitchell, M.A., University of Central Florida
Jeffrey E. Cassisi, Ph.D., University of Central Florida

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating effects of experiential avoidance on the relationships between neuroticism and depressive and anxiety symptoms and life satisfaction. Specifically, 622 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States completed self-report measures of neuroticism (EPQ-R-S), experiential avoidance (AAQ), life satisfaction (TSWLS), and depressive (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI) symptoms. Mediation analyses were conducted by implementing bias-corrected bootstrapping procedures (5,000 resamples) to estimate the total, direct, and indirect effects. Neuroticism exerted significant indirect effects on depressive and anxiety symptoms and life satisfaction through experiential avoidance, with higher levels of experiential avoidance associated with increased depressive and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction, after controlling for the direct effects of neuroticism. Examination of effect ratios revealed that the proportion mediated by the impact of experiential avoidance on depressive and anxiety symptoms and life satisfaction were 40%, 20%, and 60%, respectively. Implications for extant theoretical models of unipolar depression and anxiety disorders as well as appropriate targets for clinical intervention are discussed.

8. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Group Therapy
Subtopic: Adolescent group therapy ACT
Sheri Turrell, Ph.D., Trillium Health Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Marci Vickar, M.A.Sc., OISE/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Mary Bell, MSW, RSW, Trillium Health Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Catherine Huddleston, M.A.Sc., Trillium Health Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Linda Ivan, MSW, RSW, Trillium Health Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Sheryl Parks, MSW, RSW, Trillium Health Centre, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Recently, the efficacy of ACT in group format has been the subject of empirical research. Studies have reported significant improvements in valued living and mindfulness, and a decrease in avoidance for adult participants with social anxiety. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new group based ACT intervention that targeted the adolescents in an out-patient clinic; participation was not diagnosis specific but rather included a heterogeneous group representative of the population served in this setting. A treatment as usual design was used with participants randomized to an immediate or delayed (i.e., wait list) treatment group. Questionnaires were administered pre and post treatment, as well as at 3 month follow up. Dependent measures assessed through questionnaires included outcome measures of mood symptoms and three process measures (i.e., mindfulness, avoidance, and valued living). Preliminary analyses suggest an increase in valued living and mindfulness for adolescents.

9. Anxious Attachment in Social Anxiety Disorder: Relationships between Anxious Attachment and Clinical Severity, Perceived Stress, Emotion Dysregulation, and Core Beliefs
Subtopic: Social Anxiety Disorder
Alexandra Davidson, PGSP-Stanford Consortium
James Gross, Ph.D., Stanford University
Philippe Goldin, Ph.D., Stanford University

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a psychiatric condition that encompasses individuals with markedly different presentations, levels of functioning, and responses to treatment (Moscovitch, 2008). Attachment style is an important framework for understanding perceived stress and affect regulation in social interactions. It is one area of individual difference that has been largely overlooked in the context of SAD but that may help to explain this heterogeneity. In the present study, we looked at the anxious dimension of attachment insecurity among individuals with generalized SAD (n=119). We tested the hypotheses that anxious attachment would be related to: (1) severity of clinical symptoms (social anxiety and depression) and lesser quality of life, (2) perceived stress and emotion dysregulation, and (3) strength of SAD core beliefs. As expected, anxious attachment was associated with social anxiety severity (r=.44, p<.001), depression (r=.31, p<.001), quality of life (r=-.42, p<.001), perceived stress (r=.34, p<.001), and strength of SAD core beliefs (r=.47, p<.001), and these associations remained significant when social anxiety severity was entered as a covariate. However there were only small associations with emotion regulation subscales like frequency of suppression in specific situations (r=.19, p<.04) and reappraisal self-efficacy (r=-.21, p<.02), and no associations with other emotion regulation subscales. These findings provide preliminary evidence for further investigation of attachment style in SAD, and suggest that it may be an important target for assessment and treatment.

Reference:
Moscovitch, D. A. (2009). What is the core fear in social phobia? A new model to facilitate individualized case conceptualization and treatment. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16 (2), 123-134.

10. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Valued Living Questionnaire
Subtopic: Measurement, Values
Brandon Sanford, M.S., Missouri State University
Ann Rost, Ph.D., Missouri State University
David Houghton, B.A., Missouri State University
David Bauman, M.A., Forest Institute
Bridget Beachy, M.A., Forest Institute

The Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ; Wilson, Sandoz, Kitchens, & Roberts, 2010) represents the first attempt to measure values concordance and has been used increasingly as both a process and outcome measure in clinical research. One psychometric concern of the measure appears to be the interpretation of items assessing value domains in which individuals are not currently engaged. We hypothesize that the domains of parenting and occupation have inflated error variance among younger populations. Removing these items should increase construct and convergent validity within this younger population but should show little effect within an older population. Additionally we compared the validity of scoring the VLQ in three different ways: a composite score (Wilson, et al, 2010), a difference score (Rost, 2010; Dalrymple & Herbert 2007), and the behavioral consistency score. Participants (N = 245; ages 17 to 51) completed the VLQ, POMS, BDI, BAI and the Values Bull’s Eye (Lundgren, 2006). The 8-domain version of the VLQ correlates higher with every measure of psychological distress (e.g. for the 10-domain version of the VLQ and POMS: r(207) = .195, p < .01, as compared to the 8-domain version: r(209) = .286, p < .001). Data collection is still currently in process, but preliminary tests reveal support for both the removal of items and the difference scoring method.


11. Effects of Expressive Writing on Values Concordance
Subtopic: Values
Ann Rost, Ph.D., Missouri State University
Brandon Sanford, M.S., Missouri State University

Past research has shown that writing about emotional experiences leads to significant reductions in physiological and psychological distress (e.g. Hughes, Uhlmann, & Pennebaker, 1994). The therapeutic benefits of this type of writing experience have been examined in many samples. However, there has not been a controlled experiment utilizing this writing paradigm in combination with the underlying theory of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, and Wilson, 1999). The current project was developed to examine the effects of expressive writing on personal values and valued living. Based upon scores obtained on the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ), individuals who are deemed highly concordant and highly discordant were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) writing about their deepest thoughts and feelings related to a traumatic event, (2) their personal values, or (3) their shoes, closet, and living room furniture. In all three conditions, participants wrote about their topic for three, 20 minute sessions scheduled over the course of 3 weeks. A 3 x 2 x 4 factorial ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The preliminary results indicate that those participants who wrote about their values and value-based behavior showed a significant change in behavior, becoming increasingly concordant with their values, over the course of the study t(20) = 3.19, p< .005. This finding may suggest that simple, values-focused interventions can impact valued behavior, and may be useful in combination with therapy.

12. An Investigation into the Relationships Among Adult Child and Parent Experiential Avoidance, Mindfulness, Emotional Dysregulation, and Excessive Behaviors
Subtopic: Experiential avoidance
Tamara Loverich, Ph.D., Eastern Michigan University
Matt Sabo, M.S., Eastern Michigan University

Experiential avoidance is presumed to be, at least partially, a product of learning. As a result, it has been assumed that levels of experiential avoidance correlate in parents and their children. This study sought to evaluate that assumption by recruiting 28 adult children and their former primary caregivers in pairs to assess their experiential avoidance (AAQ-II), emotional dysregulation (DERS), Mindfulness (MAAS), and use of excessive behaviors (CMPB). Early data analyses indicate that adult child and parent experiential avoidance, mindfulness, and emotional dysregulation correlate significantly and that parental EA is the best predictor of adult child EA. Greater experiential avoidance and less mindfulness were associated with greater utilization of harmful excessive behaviors in adult children and parents. Additional findings, implications, and future directions for this research will be presented.

13. Are self-loathing and perfectionist beliefs (verbal relations) implicated in the onset of disordered eating?
Subtopic: Disordered eating behaviours
Amanda Tetley, Trent Doctorate in Clinical Psychology
Nima Golijani-Moghaddam, Trent Doctorate in Clinical Psychology
David L Dawson, Trent Doctorate in Clinical Psychology
Michael Rennoldson, Trent Doctorate in Clinical Psychology

Introduction: Since the 1970s there has been much interest in the precipitants of disordered eating. Recently, it has been suggested that it might occur as a result of a pervasive negative view of self and high standards for self-achievement. This poster describes a study proposed to test this hypothesis. Specifically, the study aims to determine the extent to which implicitly- and explicitly-measured self-loathing, and high standard for self, beliefs can prospectively predict disordered eating in an at-risk group of female students.

Methodology: We will assess self-loathing, and high standard for self, beliefs in female students at the beginning of university and determine whether these predict disordered eating six months later. Self-beliefs will be assessed explicitly, using self-report scales, and implicitly, using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

Clinical implications: This study will further our understanding of the factors implicated in the development of disordered eating. This could inform the development of prevention strategies and identify novel targets for psychological interventions.

14. Psychological Inflexibility, Personality, and Treatment Outcome Following a Mindfulness-based Intervention for Stress
Subtopic: Mindfulness
Megan S. Steven-Wheeler, D.Phil., The Catholic University of America
Carol R. Glass, Ph.D., The Catholic University of America
Kevin J. Crowley, M.A., The Catholic University of America
Robert K. Hindman, M.A., The Catholic University of America
David D. Maron, M.A., The Catholic University of America
Elizabeth W. Hirschhorn, The Catholic University of America

Psychological inflexibility (PI) is a common factor in psychopathology (Bond et al. 2011) and is inversely correlated with positive therapeutic outcome (e.g., Berking et al., 2009). However, little is known about the relations between PI, trait personality, and outcomes of mindfulness-based interventions. The current study used data from 34 undergraduate and graduate students who volunteered for a 6-week mindfulness-based workshop for stress. Personality was measured using the NEO five-factor inventory (Costa & McCrea, 1989), and PI with the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II (Bond et al., 2011).

Preliminary results indicated that neuroticism was significantly correlated with PI (r = .78, p < .001), whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness were significantly inversely correlated with PI (r = -.36 and -.38, p < .05, respectively). Given that personality is predictive of the existence of psychopathology (e.g. Carey & DiLalla, 1994), these results raise the possibility that psychological inflexibility is a key construct linking personality to psychopathology. Subsequent analyses will examine the role of PI and personality as predictors of treatment outcome.

15. PsyMate: An instrument for ecological, momentary assessment of behavior and its context
Subtopic: Assessment
Tim Batink, MSc, Maastricht University, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Division 2: Mental Health.
Inez Myin-Germeys, Prof. Dr., Maastricht University, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Division 2: Mental Health.
Marieke Wichers, Dr. (Assistant Professor), Maastricht University, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Division 2: Mental Health.

ACT teaches us to deal with our experiences in the present moment, in such a way that we can behave according to our values. However, clients do have to get out of their lives and into our therapy-office to learn to work with ACT. I will introduce a new digital momentary behavioral assessment and intervention technology; the PsyMate, that allows to move the therapy out of the office and back into the patient’s day to day experience. The PsyMate is an electronic device that is designed for recording overt (actions) and covert (thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations) behavior in daily life. The PsyMate can be used to assess present moment experiences as well as provide treatment interventions in real-world settings. I will introduce the PsyMate as well as its options for real-life feedback and interventions.

16. The implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP) and the malleability of negative implicit cognition toward women.
Subtopic: IRAP
Kerry Sheldon, Ph.D, University of Nottingham
Dr David L. Dawson, University of Lincoln
Dr Nina Golijani-Moghaddam, University of Lincoln

The sexual objectification of women in the media, and the supposedly negative effects of pornography on male attitudes towards women, are regularly debated. Yet one major flaw of the pornography effects literature is their reliance on self-report or “explicit” measures, rather than on more direct measures of cognitions known as “implicit” measures. Explicit measures asking questions about sexism and violence against women are problematic because people do not have access to much of their cognitions, have to compare themselves to others on the measures, and may deliberately choose to lie on them. In contrast, implicit measures infer attitudes or cognitions through a pattern of responses on a task. They are subject to less social desirability and are thought to be tapping into cognitions which are automatic. This implies such cognitions are resistant to change and raises the important question of how malleable implicit cognitions are, for instance can they be primed? The main aim of this study is to explore whether implicit cognitions toward women can be primed through pornography exposure. The sample will include students across two UK Universities. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) will be used as the primary outcome measure. Three further objectives include whether any effects are maintained over 48 hours and whether priming with pornography exposure produces similar, or different effects, across the IRAP and two self-report questionnaires measuring sexism and negative attitudes toward women. Finally, the study proposes exploring whether implicit and explicit measures predict behavioural outcomes, in this case, chair proximity to the experimenter and rating of experimenter competence and friendliness.

17. Validation study of the Italian version of the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ)
Subtopic: Cognitive Fusion
Francesco Dell'Orco, M.A., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma
Anna Bianca Prevedini, M.A., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma
Annalisa Oppo, M.A., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma
Giovanbattista Presti, Ph.D., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma
Paolo Moderato, Ph.D., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma

In the perspective to make available for the Italian community a specific instrument psychometrically sound for measuring cognitive fusion, we translated and back translated an Italian version of the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ; Gillanders, D.T., Bolderston, H., Bond, F.W., Dempster, M., Campbell, L., Kerr, S., Tansey, L., Clarke, S., Remington, B., Flaxman, P., Deans, G. , 2010), an instrument which is focused on cognitive fusion, intended as the process in which a subject mingles thoughts about an event with the present experience of it. In Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, cognitive fusion is related to experiential avoidance, thought control strategies, distress, rumination, life satisfaction and quality of life.
CFQ was administered to a sample of non-clinical and clinical population. Respondents indicate how frequently they have the experience described in each statement using a 7-point Likert scale from 1 (always true) to 7 (never true), where high scores reflect more cognitive fusion. Correlations with other instruments (SCL90, AAQ-II, EQ, DASS) were investigated. Data will be discussed

18. Investigating implicit attitudes to the therapeutic relationship and their impact on outcomes in therapy.
Subtopic: IRAP
Michael Oddi, University of Nottingham / University of Lincoln
Dave Dawson, DClinPsy, University of Lincoln

The idea that the therapeutic relationship can influence outcomes in therapy above specific therapeutic techniques has a large history in the literature. Measures of this can be problematic as they all rely on participant self-report which can be subject to various social desirability biases. Research suggests that measures of implicit attitudes can be a more accurate reflection of attitudes and a better predictor of behaviour in socially sensitive areas.

This study aims to investigate implicit attitudes to the therapeutic relationship for clients in receiving therapy in primary care settings and to determine how predictive they are of outcomes in therapy.

19. Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: Assessing the Effectiveness of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioural Analogue Intervention in Relation to Restructuring Implicit Rape Supportive Verbal Relations
Subtopic: IRAP
Anna Brown, MSc, University of Lincoln
Dr David Dawson DClinPsy, University of Lincoln
Dr Nima Golijani-Moghaddam DClinPsy, University of Lincoln

Research into sexual aggression and cognition has been impeded by methodological concerns. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP Barnes-Holmes et al., 2006) has addressed some of these concerns by being less susceptible to socially desirable responding than other measures. Derived from relational frame theory (RFT; Hayes et al., 2001) the IRAP provides a direct measure of implicit cognition. The primary aim of the study is to examine the malleability of implicit beliefs as measured using the IRAP. The second aim is to investigate whether IRAP scores can predict behavior. The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression scale (AMMSA; Gerger et al., 2007) will be used to screen university males. High-scorers will be randomly assigned to an analogue-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) intervention group or a problem-solving control group and will complete the IRAP pre- and post-intervention. Participants will complete behavioral outcome measures: a behavioral rating scale and a forced-choice measure.

20. Nonaggressive Rules and Provocation
Subtopic: Aggression
Andrew M. Sherrill, B.S., Northern Illinois University
Kathryn M. Bell, Ph.D., Capital University
Joseph Magliano, Ph.D., Northern Illinois University
Alan Rosenbaum, Ph.D., Northern Illinois University
Patricia Wallace, Ph.D., Northern Illinois University
Aaron Briggs, Northern Illinois University

Nonaggressive rules specifying punishments following aggressive behavior or benefits following nonaggressive behavior may function to inhibit aggressive behavior or promote alternative prosocial behavior. To examine the impact of nonaggressive rules on aggressive responding, this study used a behavior analog measure of aggression requiring participants to exchange noise blasts with a fictitious opponent under the cover story of a reaction time game. Before competing, participants assigned to a “nonaggressive rule group” were informed that using low intensity noise blasts against opponents typically results in opponents reciprocating with high intensity noise blasts. In comparison to a “no rule group,” participants in the nonaggressive rule group delivered lower noise blast intensities across all 30 trials of gradually increasing provocation; however, as provocation increased, the two groups increased their noise blast levels at similar rates. Findings suggest that nonaggressive rules may function to partially suppress aggressive responding, although provocation also influences aggressive responding.

21. ACT-enhanced Parent Training for parents of ADHD children.
Subtopic: Children, ADHD, Parent Traning
Anna Bianca Prevedini, M.A., IULM University Milan-Italy; IESCUM Italy
Francesca Pergolizzi, PsyD, IESCUM Italy
Laura Vanzin, PsyD, Istituto Scientifico Eugenio Medea IRCCS – Bosisio Parini -Italy
Massimo Molteni, MD, Istituto Scientifico Eugenio Medea IRCCS – Bosisio Parini -Italy
Giovambattista Presti, Ph.D., IULM University Milan; IESCUM Italy
Paolo Moderato, Ph.D., IULM University Milan; IESCUM Italy

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that affects between 8 and 12% of children worldwilde (Polanczyk, 2007). Children with ADHD are typically characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, but many of them show pattern of problem behaviors such as non-compliance and aggression too. Current evidence suggests that parent training programs based on behavioral and cognitive behavioral principles are reasonably effective in producing behavioral changes both in children with ADHD and in their parents and family members (e.g. Anastopuolos and Farley, 2003).

A twelve-session Cognitive and Behavioral Parent Training (CB-PT) is offered for parents of ADHD children at the Istituto Scientifico Eugenio Medea, IRCCS – Bosisio Parini – Italy, a clinical and research hospital for the diagnosis and treatment of children with different neurological and psychological disorders. The manualized training (Vio et al, 1999) is mainly psychoeducational and aims to help parents in 1) acquiring correct information about ADHD 2) becoming aware of their attributional styles and their impact on emotions and behaviors, and to change them with more effective ones, and 3) learning effective behavioral strategies to manage their ADHD children difficulties and problematic behaviors (including functional assessment of children behaviors and contingencies modification). Given the recent evidence and theorization of the role of Experiential Avoidance (e.g of feeling incompetent and ineffective) and Fusion (e.g. with thoughts and stories about their own child’s disorder and misbehaviors) processes in the impairment of parents’ ability to develop effective parenting skills (e.g. Coyne & Wilson, 2004; Greco et al. 2005), the present research attempts to enhance the above PT protocol with ACT, used as a way to reduce parents’ psychological barriers that may restrict new skill acquisition (Murrell & Scherbarth, 2011).

The ACT-enhanced twelve-session Parent Training (ACT-PT) for parents of children diagnosed with ADHD will be presented. It will be discussed the role of ACT processes in: 1) contacting the unworkability of parental strategies based on Experiential Avoidance and Fusion, 2) lessening the automaticity of those strategies to make the parental repertoire more flexible and contingency based, 3) and placing parental goals in the context of clarified personal values. Epistemological, theoretical and practical differences between the CB-PT and ACT-PT will also be discussed.

22. Psychological acceptance and impulsivity: Interaction predicts disordered eating behavior
Subtopic: eating behavior
Stephanie P. Goldstein, Drexel University
James D. Herbert, Ph.D., Drexel University
Evan M. Forman, Ph.D., Drexel University
Adrienne Juarascio, M.S., Drexel University
Breann Erford, Drexel University
Amanda Barbieri, Drexel University

Recent research has shown that increased mindfulness, an enhanced awareness and nonjudgmental acceptance of a particular experience accompanied by an attitude of openness, might be related to decreased self-reported disinhibition for individuals with low impulsivity (Lattimore et al., 2011). This finding strengthens past research relating disinhibition to impulsivity and further elucidates the impact of mindfulness on disinhibition. Whereas these findings are novel, they rely on self-reported disinhibition and it is unclear how they will translate to overt behavior. The current study examined this relationship with behavioral measures of disinhibition and impulsivity, and more specific facets of mindfulness (acceptance and awareness). Participants were 95 female undergraduate students. Measures of impulsivity (Go/No Go Association Task; GNAT), psychological acceptance and awareness, self-reported and behavioral disinhibited eating (mock taste test) were administered. Results revealed a negative relationship between psychological acceptance and both self-reported disinhibited eating, r=-0.47, p<.001, and behavioral impulsivity, r=-0.21, p=.042. Additionally, it was found that GNAT scores interacted with acceptance to predict self-reported, b=0.01, t(90)= 2.14, p=.035, and behavioral, b= 0.03, t(90)=2.58, p=.012, disinhibited eating. These relationships show that higher psychological acceptance leads to lower levels of disinhibited eating for individuals who are less impulsive; however the same pattern was not observed for psychological awareness. These findings have potential for implicating psychological acceptance more specifically in interventions targeting disinhibited eating.

23. Experiential Avoidance, Anxiety Sensitivity, Coping and Smoking
Subtopic: Smoking and Expiriential Avoidance
Vasos Pavli, University of Cyprus

Background: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the term used to describe the fear of anxiety and physical sensations related to anxiety, and consists of beliefs that the experiences of anxiety/fear and related physical sensations have harmful somatic, psychological or social consequences (Reiss, 1991; Reiss & McNally, 1985). Experiential Avoidance (EA) occurs when a person is unwilling to stay in contact with particular "stressful" and unpleasant experiences (e.g., bodily sensations, emotions, thoughts, memories) and takes steps to change the form or frequency of these events or tend to escape (Hayes et al., 1996). One important issue it’s the relation between AS and smoking. There is an extend research past work trying to specify this relationship. According to resources, the latter produces bodily sensations common to anxiety-related states, including heart palpitations, elevations in blood pressure, and increased coronary blood flow (Benowitz, 1996; Pickering, Schwartz, & James, 1995). For example it was found that cigarettes smokers who are high in AS are more apt to report smoking because they believe that smoking serves as a coping function to down regulate negative affective states (e.g. anxiety, Brown, Kahler, Zvolensky, Lejuez, & Ramsey, 2001; Comeau & Loba, 2001). Other evidence suggests that negative reinforcement available through experiential avoidance is an important component of nicotine dependence (Shiffman, 1993). According to Kenford et al., 2002 suggest that the basis of smoking is nicotine exposure, tolerance development, and withdrawal symptoms in the absence of nicotine

Our research aims to: 1) clarify whether EA mediates the relation between AS and Smoking, 2) examine gender differences in AS between smokers and non smokers, and 3) whether smoking is used as a coping function for both male and female smokers. We collected data from male and female Cypriot Smokers and Non-Smokers, to examine the variables mentioned above.
Measures: Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-16; Reiss, Peterson, Gursky, & McNally, 1986), Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerström, 1978; Heatherton et al., 1991), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II (AAQ II; Bond et al, 2010) and COPE-Brief (COPE-B; Carver, 1997).

Participants: 176 college smokers (91 female Mage = 20.70, S.D.=1.95, M = 17.53, S.D= 8.58 cigarettes per day) and 168 college nonsmokers (84 female, Mage = 20.61 S.D. = 1.20).
Results: Independent Sample T-tests and ANOVA (GLM) were used to examine differences in Anxiety Sensitivity among men and women. Women in the overall sample scored higher than men on the ASI, t(342) = 6.92, p < .001 (women: M = 22.94, SD = 10.97; men: M = 14.64, SD = 11.28).Male smokers had significantly higher ASI scores compared to male non-smokers, t(99.69) = 7.94, p < .001,(male smokers: M =20.47, SD =1.12; male nonsmokers: M =8.74 SD =1.29) but no such difference was found between smoking and non-smoking women, t(101.08) = 0.32, p > .05 (female smokers: M =23.70, SD=1.08; female non smokers: M =22.10, SD =1.29).

***Preliminary analysis showed that Smoking is used as a coping function for both men and women. Preliminary mediation analysis showed that AS mediates the relationship between Smoking and EA.

24. Self-Compassion and Social Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Shame
Subtopic: Social Anixety
Emily Winch, M.A., La Salle University
Valerie Saxton, M.A., La Salle University
Kimberly Aker, M.A., La Salle University
Lienna Wilson, B.A., La Salle University
LeeAnn Cardaciotto, Ph.D., La Salle University
Edie Goldbacher, Ph.D., La Salle University

Self-compassion correlates negatively with depression, anxiety, and rumination (Neff, 2003). It may be particularly relevant to social anxiety due to the high levels of self-criticism characteristic of the disorder; additionally, individuals with social phobia report less self-compassion than do healthy controls (Werner et al., in press). Social anxiety has also been linked to shame, and the two have been found to correlate highly (Gilbert, 2000). Compassion-focused therapy purports to decrease shame by cultivating the ability to self-soothe through compassion (Gilbert & Proctor, 2006). The present study further examines the relationships among self-compassion, social anxiety, and shame, hypothesizing that shame mediates the relationship between self-compassion and social anxiety. Participants were 150 student volunteers from a small urban Catholic university. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that shame partially mediated the relationship between self-compassion and social anxiety (z = -5.175, p < .001). Clinical implications and future directions for research will be discussed.

25. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as an Alternative to Exposure: A Pilot Study in the Treatment of Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD.
Subtopic: PTSD
Katharine C. Sears, Ph.D., VA National Center for PTSD
Varvara Mazina, BA, VA National Center for PTSD
Amy Wagner, Ph.D., Portland VA Medical Center
Robyn Walser, Ph.D., VA National Center for PTSD

There is a need to provide alternative therapies to the evidence-based standards for the treatment of PTSD. Drop-out rates and refusal rates for exposure-based therapies, the main empirically-based intervention for PTSD, range from 40-50% (Schnurr et al., 2007; van Minnen, Arntz, & Keijsers, 2002). In this ongoing multi-site VA pilot study, Acceptance and Commitment Threapy (ACT) was offered to Veterans diagnosed with PTSD who had already declined or dropped out of exposure treatment. Six male Veterans (mean age 52.6, 50% Caucasian) completed a 12-week ACT protocol and answered a series of questionnaires at pre-, post-, and 3-month follow up. Preliminary results suggest a reliable decrease in average PTSD scores on the PTSD Checklick (PCL-C; Weathers, 1993) from pre- to post-treatment (average ∆ = -5.84, range 5 to -24), and a clinically significant decrease from pre-treatment to 3 month follow-up (average ∆ = -21.25, range -5 to -36). Participants reported successive improvements from pre-treatment to follow up in three domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF; World Health Organization, 1993): social relationships (average ∆ = .88), psychological health (average ∆ = 1.47), and physical health (average ∆ = 2.93); as well as improvements in values-based living as measured by questionnaires designed for the pilot study. According to their responses on the Treatment Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ; Borkovec & Nau, 1972), Veterans had realistic expectancies about ACT treatment and their beliefs about its credibility were solidified over time. While there was no apparent change in Veterans' willingness to engage in exposure-based treatments as a result of the treatment, there was an upward trend in patients’ self-reported acceptance as measured on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-2; Bond et al., 2011) from pre- to post-treatment (average ∆ = 9) and pre- to follow-up (average ∆ = 11.3). In addition, there was a downward trend in scores on the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; Wegner & Zanakos,1994) from pre- to post-treatment (average ∆ = -2) and pre- to follow-up (average ∆ = -8.83). Individual data will be presented and the implications for implementing ACT as an alternative PTSD treatment will be discussed.

26. Body-related acceptance as a potential mediator of body image dissatisfaction and eating pathology
Subtopic: Disordered Eating, Body Image, Acceptance
Alyssa Matteucci, Drexel University
Adrienne Juarascio, M.S., Drexel University
Evan Forman, Ph.D., Drexel University
James Herbert, Ph.D., Drexel University

Body dissatisfaction is highly predictive of eating pathology; however, many more individuals experience body dissatisfaction than disordered eating. Although several variables appear to influence the relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, one potential under-studied factor is experiential avoidance (EA) of somatic internal experiences. Individuals with high EA may be more likely to engage in behaviors designed to reduce body dissatisfaction, including engaging in pathological eating behaviors. The current study will longitudinally examine whether EA mediates the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating in a sample of undergraduate students from a large urban university in the Mid-Atlantic United States. It is hypothesized that those with high body image dissatisfaction and high EA will show the most increases in disordered eating symptoms. 284 undergraduates were assessed at the beginning of the academic year and preliminary results replicated prior work (Martin, Juarascio, Faherty, Kalodner, & Timko, under review) suggesting that BIAAQ mediated the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating cross-sectionally (EDE global: z=-2.99, p<.01, 95% CI: -.0340 to -.0342). Data collection is underway for a 3 month and 6 month follow-up and longitudinal results will be presented.

27. Quantitative Functional Evaluation: an Alternative to Categorical and Dimensional Approaches of Depression
Subtopic: Depression
Jean-Louis Monestès, Ph.D., Mental Health Services - CHU de la Réunion
Jonathan Delsaux, M.D., Ph Pinel Hospital, CHU Amiens
Matthieu Villatte, Ph.D., University of Louisiana, Lafayette
Cyril Ferdynus, Ph.D., CHU de la Réunion
Gwenole Loas, M.D., Ph.D., Ph Pinel Hospital, CHU Amiens
Stéphane Rusinek, Ph.D., PSITEC, Lille 3 University

Major flaws have been pointed out with the utilisation of categorical (DSM, CIM) approach of depression (importance of comorbidity and of “non otherwise specified” cases). These problems limit the usefulness of categorical approach in clinical setting and research.

Several dimensional propositions have been made to improve categorical approach by quantitatively evaluating the intensity of depression. As for categorical classifications, they fail to evaluate the psychological processes underlying depression. A quantitative functional analysis is warranted to evaluate these psychological processes.
We compared these three approaches in a group of 130 inpatients with depression and 152 non-clinical participants. The participants filled the BDI-II, and a group of scales measuring each psychological process of the hexaflex (AAQ-II, CFQ13, MAAS, VLQ, PP items of IRI).

An ANOVA with post-hoc tests revealed no difference between moderate, mild, and severe depression, for psychological inflexibility and cognitive fusion. On the opposite, participants with severe depression were the only ones to present significantly lower scores for mindfulness, perspective taking, and values importance and consistency. Scores of participants with mild and moderate depression did not differ from non-depressed participants for these last three psychological processes.

These results constitute a first functional approach that would help evaluating psychological processes in depression, to improve clinical work and research.

28. Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in obsessive symptomatology: A case study
Subtopic: OCD
Abraham Álvarez-Bejarano, Universidad de Almería
Sara de Rivas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

First of all, obssessions are analyzed as active episodes of experiential avoidance. Then, the history of the patient is exposed and a functional analysis of problematic behaviors is presented. This is followed by a description of the intervention carried out, with an order that tries to clarify the goals of the therapy. Self-informed measures (AAQ-II, VLQ, MAAS) varied coherently with the ACT predicted change process. Finally, these results are discussed and related to certain implications for obssesions´ treatment, with special emphasis on defusion techniques.

29. Utilizing Fluency-Building to Train Deictic Relational Responding in a Young Child with Autism
Subtopic: Perspective-Taking
Brooke M. Berry, Fit Learning
Kendra Brooks Rickard, Ph.D., BCBA, Fit Learning

Children with autism show marked deficits in perspective-taking abilities compared to typically developing children (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985). Such deficits could account for the impairment of social skills characteristic of this population. In an attempt to train a perspective-taking repertoire, researchers have employed methods derived from Relational Frame Theory to directly train the deictic relations I-You, Here-There, and Now-Then utilizing discrete trials (Rehfeldt et al., 2007, Weil et al., 2011). However, deictic relational training in children with autism has been relatively limited (Gould et al., 2011; Candido & Jackson, 2012). The present case study replicated and extended Weil et al. (2011) by examining whether a perspective-taking repertoire could be established in a young child with autism utilizing a fluency-building paradigm, in which rate of response was shaped to reach a specific frequency goal. Each relation was trained to fluency at the simple, reversed, and double-reversed levels. Traditional Theory of Mind skills were assessed at baseline and after mastery was achieved at each difficulty level. A multiple probe element was also included to evaluate the potential generative impact on untrained relations as a function of training on initial deictic relations.

30. ACT Goes to Hollywood: Lessons Learned from the Trenches When Developing Multimedia Enhancements of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Online Treatment Program
Subtopic: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Charles Raffaele, University at Albany
Matthew R. Donati, University at Albany
Christopher R. Berghoff, University at Albany
Allyson Delprino, University at Albany
Edward Hickling, Capital Psychological Associates
John P. Forsyth, University at Albany

Researchers are adapting cognitive-behavioral interventions, including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), to online formats. One key aspect of such undertakings within an ACT context is to ensure participants’ engagement and use of multimedia is currently being explored as one possible medium to aid in this pursuit. However, creating compelling ACT-based video presentations is a complex undertaking with many pitfalls. And yet, educational research suggests several principles that, when followed, tend to lead to more effective learning, and reduced distraction and confusion, in technological environments.

We introduce a 10-week, modularized, multimedia-based online program grounded in ACT, designed for veterans experiencing difficulties adjusting to civilian life after returning from deployment in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). The visual design of the online program is presented and several specific multimedia techniques designed to enhance participant engagement with the treatment are highlighted. Discussed in the context of utilizing technology to advance the communication of behavioral principles within an ACT context, we illustrate the implementation of several research-based recommendations in the creation and design of (a) title screens, (b) effective use of supportive overlays (i.e. text and/or images), (c) ‘green screen’ technologies to vary setting (i.e. outdoors, creating a virtual therapy room), and (d) implementing multiple teaching strategies, including didactic instruction, demonstrations, and role-plays. Future directions include implementing multiple versions of multimedia-based therapies to examine both the effectiveness of individual techniques and the applicability of existing educational research to the field of contextual-behavioral science when delivered in an online format.

31. The acceptance-based treatment and the acceptance plus defusion exercise treatment for non-criterion A1 stressors
Subtopic: PTSR cased by non-A1 criterion stressors
Miki Uruwashi, Master, Waseda University
Hiroaki Kumano, M.D., Waseda University

This study investigates the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) for attenuating the three major symptoms of posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) cased by the stressors other than definition of DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder’s (PTSD) traumatic stressor criterion (A1). Fifteen participants showing PTSR were randomly divided into two groups, the "acceptance and education group (G1)" and the "acceptance and education plus dyfusion exercise group (G2)”. Participants were evaluated at pre, post1, post 2 and followed up a month later with the Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) criteria, namely avoidance, hyper-arousal and re-experiencing. When comparing the two groups, G2 showed significantly lower levels of avoidance on the IES-R at post1. At the same time, all three criteria on IES-R avoidance, hyper-arousal and re-experiencing rates at post1 and post2 in both groups were significantly lower compared with the rates at pre. These results suggest that acceptance-based interventions may be helpful in attenuating all PTSR, and that dyfusion exercises may be effective in alleviating avoidance symptoms.

32. Psychological Inflexibility and Smoking in a sample of adolescents.
Subtopic: substance misuse
Georgia Nathanail, University of Cyprus
Maria Koushiou, University of Cyprus

Based on 2005 Cyprus national data, 10% of high school students admitted to be smokers, while this percentage reached 28.7% for lyceum students. What is the role of experiential avoidance in the smoking habit?
The aim of this study (which constitutes part of a combating smoking intervention in Cyprus schools) is to examine psychological inflexibility, as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – II (AAQ-II) in smokers and non-smokers lyceum students.

Preliminary analysis was conducted to examine the difference between the two groups of students (N=471) in terms of their psychological flexibility. Results suggest that there is a significant difference (t(119,124)= -2.94, p ≤ .01) between the two groups and that adolescents who report high levels of psychological inflexibility present a higher risk for smoking. These findings are in convergence with previous ones, exploring the role of psychological flexibility in substance abuse. Implications of the current study involve the improvement of the manual used including more practical applications of the concept of psychological flexibility.

33. When I feel your pain: Perspective taking and relational aggression among young adults
Subtopic: relational aggression, perspective taking
Sarah E. Allen, University of Mississippi
Olga V. Berkout, M.A., University of Mississippi
Alan M. Gross, Ph.D., University of Mississippi

Relational aggression was defined as indirectly harming others through damaging interpersonal relationships (Archer & Coyne, 2004). Relational aggression is exceedingly common among young adults (Ellis, Crooks, & Wolfe, 2009; Goldstein, Chesir-Teran, & McFaul, 2008) and victimization is associated with a number of negative consequences (Goldstein et al., 2008; Gomes, Davis, Baker, & Servonsky, 2009; Gros, Gros, & Simms, 2010). Perspective taking is defined as the ability to understand others internal states (cognitive perspective taking i.e. mentalizing) and share others’ internal experience (affective perspective taking, i.e. empathy; Feshbach & Feshbach, 1969; Singer & Fehr, 2005). Experiencing distress upon harming another may be contingent upon the ability to take on the cognitive and affective perspectives of others. The current study will examine the relationship between perspective taking and relational aggression in a sample of 300 undergraduates. We expect that relational aggression will be inversely related to affective, but not cognitive, perspective taking.

34. Contextual behavioral skills training in group for adults with Asperger syndrome – a pilot study
Subtopic: Asperger Syndrome, mindfulness, stress
Johan Pahnke, Psychologist, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, KIND (Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)/Dep. of Clin. Neuroscience
Johan Bjureberg, Psychologist, Psychiatry Northwest, Stockholm
Sven Bölte, prof., Karolinska Institute Stockholm, KIND (Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
Jussi Jokinen, Ph.D., MD, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Dep. of Clin. Neuroscience
Tatja Hirvikoski, Ph.D., Psychologist, specialist in neuropsychology, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, KIND (Karolinska Institutet Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)/Dep. of Clin. Neuroscience

OBJECTIVES. Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and behavioral flexibility, and associated with high rates of co-morbidity and decreased quality of life. In a previous study an adapted treatment program in group, based on a contextual behavioral approach, showed reduced stress in adolescents with AS (Pahnke et al, ms in prep).
METHODS. In the current study we performed an open trial to evaluate feasibility, treatment acceptability, and efficacy of contextual behavioral skills training in adults with AS (n=10; age range 25-65 years) in an outpatient psychiatric context.
RESULTS. Overall treatment acceptability and feasibility was good. There was a significant reduction in subjective stress and improvement in quality of life and psychiatric co-morbidity.
CONCLUSIONS. The treatment program can be effective to reduce stress and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms, and increase quality of life, in AS. We are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial.

35. A therapeutical approach to subjective memory complaints in elderly people
Subtopic: elderly people
Tomás Quirosa-Moreno, Ph.D., University of Almería (Spain)
Enrique Gil-González, Ph.D, University of Almería (Spain)
MªTeresa Lorente-Molina, M.A., University of Almería (Spain)

Subjective memory complaints are very frequent among elderly people (O´Connor, 1990). Programs on memory training have proliferated in last decades. Thus, it is needed to assess the impact of these programs on both decreasing subjective memory complaints and quality of life. The function of private events in the person, who is remembering, displays discriminative properties to behave in incompatible ways of paying attention to stimuli (Ruiz-Jiménez, 2006). This could be considered as a result of controlling private events such as feelings, sensations, problematic thoughts and behaviors.

Our study examined this question in a sample of elderly people (aged 60 to 83 years; n=37) without dementia or other psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to explore the efficacy of a brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based protocol of 8 sessions applied to healthy elders. Psychological measures were: “Catch My Oversights” Register; Memory Failures Everyday Life Questionnaire -MFE- Sunderland, Harris, and Gleave (1984); Geriatric Depression Scale -GDS- Yesavage (1983) and the credibility of private events with a Spanish version of the AAQ-II (Ruiz et al., in press). Improvements in all psychological measures were found in the treatment-group versus control-group.

36. Does Values Clarification Impact salivary cortisol levels following a social stressor: A follow-up Study
Subtopic: Stress
Walter Louie, San Jose State University
Benjamin Ramos, San Jose State University
Justine Preza, San Jose State University
Evelyn Shieh, San Jose State University
Meghana Kotwal, San Jose State University
Gabriella Alshafie, San Jose State University

In a previous study, we examined the impact of a brief values clarification task on stress responding as measured by salivary cortisol following a standardized social stressor. Findings indicated that the brief values intervention had little or no impact on salivary cortisol levels in college student participants (N = 53). Subsequently, we enhanced the values clarification task to include specific actions taken and to be taken for each valued domain in order to increase the effect size of the intervention. This enhanced intervention was then examined with more college student participants (N =99). Repeated measures ANOVA results indicate that the enhanced values clarification task did indeed significantly reduce cortisol responding when compared to a control condition of trivia questions, and a significant relationship was found between Experiential Avoidance and baselines cortisol level. Results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms for values clarification in health domains.

37. A Multiple Mediation Analysis of ACT and CBT Self-Help Treatments for Anxious Suffering: What Are the Underlying Mechanisms of Action?
Subtopic: Bibliotherapy
Matthew R. Donati, University at Albany, SUNY
Eric Petrone, University at Albany, SUNY
Amanda R. Russo, University at Albany, SUNY
Samantha Callahan, University at Albany, SUNY
John P. Forsyth, University at Albany, SUNY

In recent years, there has been a move in behavioral research to go beyond simply demonstrating a link between treatments and outcomes and explicate the particular change processes at work. With such information, researchers and clinicians can identify and target the key features of a treatment and the change processes that influence them. Indeed, current work in behavioral and emotion science has emphasized common processes that transcend diagnostic categories, resulting in unified treatment protocols targeting these processes for a wide range of psychological problems. Yet, despite increased focus on mechanisms of action in outcomes research, and specifically common change processes, few studies have employed analytic strategies (e.g., multiple mediation) that allow for simultaneous consideration of the role of multiple mediators in relation to clinical outcomes. Such work, in turn, is particularly important when comparing interventions that include unique intervention strategies linked to different models of psychopathology and its alleviation. Moreover, such work may help resolve recent debates about whether newer third generational behavior therapies, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), are unique relative to more traditional CBT, particularly at the level of processes of change (i.e., how they work). Multiple mediation analyses can help to (a) clarify such issues (Preacher & Hayes, 2008), and (b) position researchers and clinicians to utilize the important mechanisms of change in creative ways, and thus may foster dissemination efforts that are efficient, focused, and broadly impactful. In short, knowledge of change processes allows researchers and clinicians to ensure that necessary mechanisms of action are not removed or modified as new dissemination methods are enacted (Kazdin & Blase, 2011).

The main aim of this study is to describe results of multiple mediational analyses of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of two self-help workbooks designed for the treatment of anxiety: a traditional cognitive behavioral therapy workbook (CBT; the Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety; Knaus, 2008), as well as a workbook based in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; the Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Anxiety; Forsyth & Eifert, 2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) differ in terms of their treatment targets and interventions, yet utilize several shared empirically supported change strategies (e.g., exposure). Participants (N = 207) suffering from anxiety in the United States and abroad were randomized to receive either the CBT workbook (n = 104) or the ACT workbook (n = 103). Participants were instructed to work with the material in the workbook for a period of 12 weeks on their own, and assessment of distress indices (e.g., depression, anxiety), ACT-and CBT-relevant processes of change (e.g., mindfulness, psychological flexibility), and overall quality of life occurred pre- and post-treatment. This paper will report on the results of multiple mediational analyses evaluating the relative contributions of ACT- and CBT-relevant processes in relation to a range of assessed outcomes. Results will be discussed with an eye on attention to process variables in the context of dissemination of effective interventions via alternative delivery models such as bibliotherapy or self-help.

38. ACT for Insomniacs
Subtopic: Insomnia
Guy Meadows Ph.D., The Sleep School

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) offers a unique and gentle non-drug based approach to overcoming chronic insomnia. It seeks to increase people’s willingness to experience the conditioned physiological and psychological discomfort commonly associated with not sleeping.

Such acceptance paradoxically acts to lessen the brains level of nocturnal arousal, thus encouraging a state of rest and sleepiness, rather than struggle and wakefulness. Additional focus on valued driven behaviour also acts to avert unhelpful patterns of experiential avoidance and promote the ideal safe environment from which good quality sleep can emerge.

The application and merits for using ACT approaches such as acceptance and willingness, mindfulness and defusion and values and committed action for the treatment of chronic insomnia are discussed and compared to the traditional cognitive behavioural strategies.

39. ACT with Yoga for Anxiety Pilot Study
Subtopic: Yoga
Kate Morrissey, LCSW, Rubber Soul Yoga, Advantage Behavioral Health
Chad Drake, Ph.D., Universtiy of South Carolina, Aiken

This pilot study explores a group approach incorporating both ACT and yoga to address the needs of clients who self identify as having struggled with anxiety. Two six-week groups were conducted (N =8 and N =6) with two hour groups incorporating one half ACT interventions and one half doing yoga and applying the principles from the first half of group. Outcomes were measured using the AAQ-II, GHQ, VLQ-M measures and a weekly evaluation of treatment. Mixed outcomes from the groups are compared and discussed. [the second group will be finished in late February]

Educational Setting

40. The Contributions of Religiosity, Perspective Taking, and Experiential Avoidance to Medical Trainees’ Openness to Spirituality Discussions
Subtopic: Physician-patient communication
Amy House, Ph.D., Georgia Health Sciences University

The majority of patients believe physicians should address their spiritual or religious beliefs, and such discussions increase patient comfort and improve health outcomes. However, few physicians regularly engage in spirituality discussions. Experiential avoidance may explain physicians’ reluctance to engage in these and other difficult conversations. This study assessed experiential avoidance and perspective taking as potential contributors to physician trainees’ attitudes and willingness to engage in spirituality communication. Physician trainees’ self-reported religiosity, perspective taking (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), and experiential avoidance (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II) independently predicted attitudes toward spirituality communication with patients. Trainees who were more religious, higher in perspective taking, and lower in experiential avoidance reported more openness toward spirituality-related communication. However, such attitudes do not necessarily translate into clinical practice. This research is part of a larger effort to examine psychological flexibility as a modifiable contributor to physician-patient communication. Future research will focus on communication behaviors as outcomes.

41. Developing an iPad App for designing and managing RFT trainings with autistic children
Subtopic: Autism, Relational Training
Giovambattista Presti, Ph.D., M.D., IULM University, Milan
Francesco Pozzi, IULM University, Milan
Luciano Baresi, Politecnico of Milan
Michele Amori, Politecnico of Milan
Melissa Scagnelli, IULM University, Milan
Edoardo Vannuttelli, Politecnico of Milan

Purpose of our research is the development of an iPad app to assist educators in designing and managing RFT trainings while working with autistic children. The main problem for educators in managing RFT training during regular training sessions is the difficulty in managing a high number of items, present them correctly and record all answers.
Working in collaboration with engineers from the Politecnico of Milan we developed an app to automatically build and manage a classical RFT training with up to eight items once the educator has selected the visual o textual stimuli to be included in the training. A first (beta) version of the app has been tested with autistic children 4 to 9 years old, to verify its functionality, evaluate the involvement of the child during training sessions and identify usability and managing issues. First results are shown, with a presentation of the app functionalities and future developments.

Functional Contextual Neuroscience and Pharmacology

42. Relational Frame Theory and Executive Functioning: Preliminary Data
Subtopic: Neuropsychology, brain-behaviour relations, IRAP
Daniel Stark, MSc, University of Nottingham
David Dawson, DClinPsy, University of Lincoln
Dermot Barnes-Holmes, D.Phil, National University of Ireland, Maynooth

Background: Within neuropsychology, the "executive functions" (EFs) are regarded as the "highest mental processes" (Alvarez & Emory, 2006), and are a central and defining feature of human cognition. Despite their first inception over 35 years ago, no consensus exists as to their definition (Banich, 2009). However, with RFT’s precisely defined component processes, it has the potential to bring a new level of construct validity to the study of the EFs.

Method: A battery of tests of intellectual efficiency and the EFs were administered. Following this, four sequential IRAPs were administered to train participants in a novel relational network, before their ability to derive and respond flexibly was assessed.

Results: The results indicated that greater fluency on tasks of derivation and flexibility were differentially associated with both tasks of intellectual efficiency and executive functioning.

Discussion: These preliminary results indicate that what are commonly referred to as the EFs can be accounted for within a framework of arbitrarily applicable relational responding. These results have exciting implications for the construct validity of the EFs, and clinical implications for the assessment and rehabilitation of these abilities.

Organizational Behavior Management

43. ACT and Organizational well being in an intensive care unit: an exploratory open study
Subtopic: Psycological Flexibility
Francesco Dell'Orco, M.A., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma
Simonetta Protti, MD, A.O. della Provincia di Lodi
Giovanbattista Presti, Ph.D., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma
Lucio Raimondi, A.O della Provincia di Lodi
Paolo Moderato, Ph.D., IULM University, Milan - IESCUM, Parma

In Italy most of hospital’s intensive care units (ICU) have very restrictive visiting policies for relatives. Many of them are now rethinking their policies. The hospital's intensive care unit of Lodi allows families to visit their relatives for 10 hours a day. Contact with family members has important benefits for patient care but also implies a greater level of stress for doctors and nurses. Sometimes this situation can have negative effects on organizational climate. Inspired by the model proposed by Bond and Bunce (2000) we conducted an exploratory study on the effectiveness of an ACT program in increasing levels of psychological flexibility and consequently the quality of the organizational climate within the ICU. 19 people (doctors and nurses) attended at 3 half-day ACT group sessions: two on consecutive weeks and a third 1 month later. Preliminary results will be discussed.

44. Using ACT workshops in career transition: A pilot study
Subtopic: Psychological distress, coping with job loss
Julie Ménard, Ph.D., University of Quebec at Montreal
Eric Tremblay, M. Psy., André Filion and Associates inc.

A group of workers who recently lost their jobs due to downsizing and corporate restructuring were invited to participate to complimentary stress management workshops by their career transition services providers. Fifteen participants voluntarily attended to two 3-hour acceptance commitment therapy training sessions followed by a reminder session based on an adapted version of Bond & Bunce’s (2000) intervention. Participants completed a questionnaire package assessing psychological flexibility (AAQ-II, Bond et al., 2011), psychological distress (PSI, Ilfeld, 1976), vitality (SV, Ryan & Frederick, 1997) and committed actions (Monestes & Villatte, 2011), before attending to the workshops (i.e., baseline) and at follow-up (i.e., 2 months after the second workshop). A control group of fifteen participants receiving the career transition services from the same provider also completed the same questionnaire package. Results comparing the two groups at follow-up will be provided.

Other

45. Beliefs About the Biological (vs. Nonbiological) Origins of Mental Illness and the Stigmatization of People with Mental Illness
Subtopic: Mental illness, substance abuse
Patrick Sears, M.A., CADC, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology

The present study focuses on the relationship between an individual’s attributions of cause regarding mental illness (i.e., the degree by which psychopathology is perceived as biologically or nonbiologically caused) and resulting stigmatization (particularly social distancing, a form of social rejection). To date, much of the research concerning attributional beliefs and stigma use general terms such as ‘‘mental patient’’ and ‘‘psychiatric client,’’ thereby overlooking the variance apparent between individuals of varying pathology. When specific pathologies have been mentioned, nearly all the research has focused on the diagnoses of schizophrenia, depression, and alcoholism. In this study, one hundred eighteen Midwestern university students were surveyed regarding their attributional beliefs toward mental illness. Regression analysis found that attributional beliefs, both biological and nonbiological, failed to predict social distance. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant variance between conditions; this variance was then investigated with paired-samples t tests. Participants preferred more social distance for the vignettes portraying schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter being the most stigmatized and socially rejected mental illness.

46. Does Mindfulness and Psychological Flexibility predict Somatization, Depression, Anxiety and General Psychological Distress in a Non-clinical Asian American College Sample?
Subtopic: Mindfulness and Psychological Flexibility
Amar Mandavia, Georgia State University
Akihiko Masuda, Ph. D, Georgia State University

The present study examined the relations among mindfulness, psychological flexibility, and a various forms of psychological distress (e.g., general distress, somatization, depression, and anxiety) in Asian American undergraduate students (N=87). We hypothesized that Mindfulness and Psychological flexibility would be uniquely and separately associated with various forms of psychological distress.

Data are gat1hered from an ethnically diverse sample of nonclinical undergraduate students (Mage =19.76, SD=2.7). We used the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) to measure psychological distress. To measure psychological flexibility we used the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-16 (AAQ-16) and the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) for mindfulness.

Results of regression analyses revealed that Mindfulness and psychological flexibility were significantly and uniquely associated with depression, anxiety and general psychological distress. But contrary to our hypothesis, we found that PF but not Mindfulness, was associated with somatization.

These findings suggest the applicability of psychological flexibility and mindfulness to understand the various distresses experienced by Asian American students

47. Is Experiential Avoidance a mediator of the association between Anxiety Sensitivity and Social Anxiety?
Subtopic: Social Anxiety
Elena Charalambous, MSc, University of Cyprus
Georgia Panayiotou, Ph.D., University of Cyprus
Georgina Christodoulou, University of Cyprus
Antri Nicolaou, University of Cyprus

It is well documented that anxiety sensitivity constitutes a significant predictor of anxiety disorders. Socially anxious individuals are highly concerned about the presence of signs of anxiety and how visible these signs are to others, and therefore anxiety sensitivity may contribute in social anxiety as well. Its association with other disorders, like depression, was found to be mediated by experiential avoidance. This study examines if experiential avoidance is a mediator of the association between anxiety sensitivity and social anxiety. A group of high socially anxious individuals compared to a control group. The ability of this model to distinguish between the two groups was examined. The results indicate that the mediation model is not fully supported. Experiential avoidance is not a mediator between anxiety sensitivity and social anxiety, and both constructs do not add significant variance on top of more traditional predictors of social anxiety, named self-consciousness and sensitivity to punishment.

48. Experiential avoidance and study-aholism:Relationship to motivation to valuing studying and mental health.
Subtopic: Workaholism
Jaqueline Pistorello, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno
Jose Arauz, Suffolk University

The present study explored the relationship between experiential avoidance and values motivation to “studyaholism.” Specifically, the researchers sought to determine if students categorized as studyaholics displayed greater psychological inflexibility and negative mental health outcomes, and if this relationship was partly contingent on motivation to study (appetitive vs. aversive, as measured by the Personal Values Questionnaire). A total of 739 college students were recruited via a psychology participant pool system at a mid-size Western University. These participants completed questionnaires measuring tendency towards studyaholism (adapted from an established workaholism scale), general mental health, values motivation, and interpersonal relationship satisfaction. Results indicated students scoring higher on a studyaholism scale also scored higher on experiential avoidance and other negative outcomes, including depression. Similar to what has been found with workaholism, our data suggested that the relationship between studyaholism and students’ well-being also depends partly on students’ motivation to study. Between-subject t-tests showed that those who are “studyaholics” mostly for appetitive reasons score lower in experiential avoidance and depression, and higher in student role adjustment than those high in studyaholism who report doing so mostly due to aversive motivation. The implications of these results are discussed, along with suggestions for avenues of future research.

49. Effects of select or reject controls on stimulus-class formation and transfer of function
Subtopic: Equivalence
William Ferreira Perez, M.D., Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Gerson Yukio Tomanari, Ph.D., Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil

In a matching-to-sample task, participants may learn to respond under control of S+ (select control) and/or S- (reject control). The present study used a single-subject design to evaluate the effects of select or reject control on equivalence class formation and transfer of function. By means of a biasing procedure that manipulated observing responses towards the comparison stimuli, four three-member equivalence classes were formed, two under select (A1B1C1, A2B2C2) and two under reject control (D1E2F1, D2E1F2). Participants were tested for transitivity, symmetry and reflexivity; after learning a simple discrimination, they were also tested for transfer of function. Under select control, participants had high scores on equivalence tests; transfer of function was attested for the S+s programmed to belong to each class. Under reject control, participants had high scores only on the symmetry test; transfer of function was attested to stimuli programmed as S-. A relational responding account is discussed.

50. The Role of Values in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Severity
Subtopic: OCD
Chad T. Wetterneck, Ph.D., University of Houston - Clear Lake
Eric B. Lee B.S., University of Houston - Clear Lake
Angela H. Smith M. A., University of Houston
John M. Hart, The Menninger Clinic

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has shown promise as an effective treatment for OCD. In ACT, the goal is to help individuals engage in values-guided behaviour instead of behaviour guided by attempts to control one’s private events. The relationship between one’s values and their anxiety levels is an area of research with little data at this time. To date, research has yet to examine the relationship between OCD and values. The research presented examines the role that values play in the severity of OCD. It examines value domains (e.g., family, work, education) as well as specific values (e.g., self-compassion, pride, courage). Data were collected from 115 participants who reported OCD symptoms. Results show significant correlations between some values (both domains and specific) and OCD severity.

51. Validating the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Intimacy Scale Therapist Version (FAPIS-T)
Subtopic: Functional Analytic Psychotherapy
Chad T. Wetterneck, Ph.D., University of Houston - Clear Lake
Gareth Holman Ph.D.,
Eric B. Lee B.S., University of Houston - Clear Lake
Jared Broussard, University of Houston - Clear Lake

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a third wave treatment approach based on the principles of radical behaviorism, developed by Kohlenberg & Tsai (1994). Most therapeutic modalities have scales to measure if therapists are employing techniques relevant to that modality. However, there is no established measure to assess a therapist’s level of FAP knowledge and technique. This study seeks to validate the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Intimacy Scale Therapist Version (FAPIS-T). The FAPIS-T is a measure designed to assess therapists in their knowledge and use of FAP. The study currently has 155 participants and we plan to collect well over 200 before the time of the conference. Currently, data have been collected from a wide range of therapists and therapists-in-training who report a variety of therapeutic backgrounds, years of experience, work settings, and experience treating different problems and disorders. Other validated measures are being used to establish construct validity. Validation of the FAPIS-T could assist future FAP related research and training.

Performance-Enhancing Interventions

52. Mindfulness, conative processes and well-being.
Subtopic: Mindfulness
Simon Grégoire, Ph.D., Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)

The aim of this study was to contribute to the efforts put forward by others in order to better understand how mindfulness affects change and contributes to well-being. More precisely, its goal was to explore the nature of the relationship between mindfulness, well-being and a conative process, namely personal goal pursuit. University students (n=114) were asked to complete questionnaires aimed at assessing both their subjective and psychological well-being as well as their dispositional mindfulness. They were also asked to identify five personal and significant goals in which they were involved and indicate the reasons why they were pursuing such goals (extrinsic, introjected, identified or intrinsic reasons). The results indicate that mindfulness is correlated with both well-being and self-determined goals and that the relationship between a person’s dispositional mindfulness and level of well-being is mediated by the motives behind his personal goals. Students who reported being more attentive and aware tended to be engaged in personal ventures that were more autonomously or self-determined driven, which in turn appeared to foster their well-being. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of mindfulness on well-being are partly mediated by conative processes.

53. The effect of cognitive defusion on attentional biases towards negative stimuli in high-anxiety participants
Subtopic: Cognitive Defusion
Christopher Wilson, Ph.D., Teesside University

A number of studies have demonstrated the benefits of ACT components such as cognitive defusion in the treatment of anxiety. The aim of the current study is to examine whether the success of a brief cognitive defusion intervention results in reduced attentional facilitation – conventionally associated with anxiety – or attentional interference – implicated in recent studies – towards negative stimuli in participants with high anxiety levels. In the pre-intervention stages, participants levels of cognitive fusion with negative stimuli are recorded followed by measures of attentional bias and attention facilitation towards the stimuli. Participants are then exposed to either a cognitive defusion intervention (Experimental Group) or no intervention (Control Group). Cognitive fusion, attentional bias and facilitation are then recorded post-intervention. Pre- and post-intervention differences in attentional facilitation and bias are examined in both groups for paraticipants who demonstrate reduced cognitive fusion with negative stimuli. The results have implications for our understanding of cognitive defusion processes and the treatment of anxiety.

54. Components Of Mindfulness As Predictors Of Sleep Quality: The Contribution Of Acceptance And Awareness
Subtopic: mindfulness, sleep quality, acceptance, college
Christina Barrasso, BA, Kean University
Karolina Kowarz, BA, Kean University
Dasa Jendrusakova, M.A., Kean University
Jennifer Block-Lerner, Ph.D., Kean University
LeeAnn Cardaciotto, Ph.D., La Salle University

Mindfulness and acceptance-based behavioral interventions, such as ACT, have received support for improving sleep quality across multiple populations, including undergraduate students for whom sleep may be a critical issue (Brown, Buboltz, & Soper, 2001; Klatt, Buckworth, & Malarkey, 2008). The present study is unique in its examination of two facets of mindfulness (i.e., acceptance and awareness) and their association with sleep quality. Forty-nine participants (42 female) completed questionnaires that assessed mindfulness and sleep behaviors. Regression analyses examined the separate roles of acceptance and awareness in sleep quality. The findings demonstrate that awareness and acceptance were significantly associated with sleep quality in opposite directions, suggesting that increasing awareness without increasing acceptance may result in poorer sleep quality. These results have implications for the implementation of interventions that target acceptance for improving sleep quality in the college population.

Prevention and Community-based Settings

55. ACT - enhanced classes on academic and studying skills in a university setting.
Subtopic: college students; drop-out prevention; study skills; groups
Anna Bianca Prevedini, M.A., IULM University Milan; IESCUM Italy
Francesco Pozzi, Ph.D., IULM University Milan; IESCUM Italy
Francesco Dell’Orco, M.A., IULM University Milan; IESCUM Italy
Anna Missaglia, PsyD, IULM University Milan
Vincenzo Russo, Ph.D., IULM University Milan; IESCUM Italy
Paolo Moderato, Ph.D., IULM University Milan; IESCUM Italy

One of the main goals of the Italian University Counseling Services is to prevent students’ dropouts during the first years of college. In fact, in Italy dropouts and delay in holding by the academic schedule seem to reach higher rate than in other European countries (ISTAT, 2009).
With the aim of helping college freshmen and students to adjust previous studying strategies to the new requests of the university setting a Counseling Service at IULM University-Milan built an ACT - enhanced set of classes on academic and studying skills. In this context, ACT may provide a compelling model to merge the need for learning more effective academic and studying strategies with the abilities to overcome all the internal barriers that may arise during the implementation of these strategies. Two four-lesson groups aiming at improving students’ academic abilities have been proposed. Students who signed in have been assigned to one of the two groups: a more traditional psycho-educational group on study methods (e.g. time management skills, learning and memory techniques, etc.) and a psycho-educational group including ACT interventions (e.g. values, defusion and mindfulness elements). Students have been evaluated pre and post intervention on different ACT and psychometric self-report and satisfaction measures, which will be presented and discussed.

56. Impact of Mindfulness versus Control instructions on stigmatizing behaviors with an HIV patient
Subtopic: Stigma
Gabriela L. Alshafie, San Jose State University
Ruthie Ayzenberg,

Stigma in relation to HIV and AIDS is often characterized by emotional response – i.e., anger or fear directed at an individual with HIV, and corresponding behavioral responses. Thus, individuals with medical illnesses such as HIV/AIDS report not only higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes directed toward them, but also harmful stigmatizing behaviors, such as behavioral avoidance following disclosure of HIV status. Mindfulness interventions assist individuals in observing their thoughts and feelings before reacting to them, and may provide a useful intervention for reducing stigmatizing behaviors toward individuals with HIV/AIDS. The present study seeks to determine the effect of a mindfulness educational program for reducing stigma, compared to a more traditional anti-stigma message. Participants (N = 53) were randomly assigned to mindfulness training or traditional anti-stigma training prior to sitting in a room with a confederate thought to have HIV/AIDS. Outcomes include distance from HIV+ individual, quality of social interactions, and ratings of emotional reactions.

Professional Development

57. Do we practice what we teach: Psychological inflexibility and value incongruence in student health care providers
Subtopic: Psychological flexibility and value congruence in RNs, NPs, and clinical psychology students
David Bauman, M.A., The School of Professional Psychology at Forest Institute
Bridget Beachy, M.A., The School of Professional Psychology at Forest Institute
Christopher Neumann, Ph.D., The School of Professional Psychology at Forest Institute
Kathryn Hope, Ph.D., RN, Missouri State University
Kerri Miller, RN, DNP, ANP-BC, Missouri State University

Over the past few decades, ACT has gained support to be applied in medical/health settings (McCracken, 2011; Robinson et al., 2010). While ACT has amounted research in health settings to support its use, little research has been done to assess the psychological flexibility and value congruence of the individuals, both students and professionals, who may be offering such services. As suggested by Robinson et al. (2010), avoidance, inflexibility, and value incongruence can lead to high stress levels, burn out, and incompetent care.
The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) and the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) measures one’s overall psychological inflexibility/experiential avoidance and overall importance/congruence with their values, respectively (Bond et al., 2011; Wilson et al., 2011). The AAQ has been reduced from its original 49 items to a more practical seven item AAQ – II (Bond et al., 2011). While data is currently being collected, this project sets out to assess psychological inflexibility and value congruence among healthcare provider students (i.e., clinical psychology, nursing, Nurse Practitioner) and to see if these groups differ in their scores on the AAQ, AAQ – II, and VLQ.

Relational Frame Theory

58. The transfer of sameness and opposition contextual-cue functions through equivalence classes
Subtopic: Transfer of function
William Ferreira Perez, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil
Daniel Caro, Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil
Adriana Fidalgo, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil
Roberta Kovac, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil
Yara Nico, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil

According to the Relational Frame Theory, relational responding is always under control of contextual cues (CRel). The present study aimed to investigate if the contextual control of relational responding is transferred through equivalence classes. First, participants were exposed to a nonarbitrary training in order to establish two nonsense figures as contextual cues for sameness and opposition. After that same and opposite relations were establish among arbitrary stimuli (Same/A1–B1; Same/A1–C1, Opposite/A1–B2; Opposite/A1–C2) and entailed relations were tested. In the next phase, contextual cues for sameness and opposition were included in the equivalence class of horizontal and vertical lines, respectively. Transfer of contextual control was tested replacing the nonsense figures originally established as contextual cues by the vertical and horizontal lines during training and test trials without feedback. Data collection with four participants is still in progress.

59. Transfer of conditional control and the expansion of equivalence classes
Subtopic: Transfer of function
William Ferreira Perez, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil
Adriana Fidalgo, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil
Yara Nico, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil
Roberta Kovac, M.D., Nucleo Paradigma de Analise do Comportamento, Brazil

The contextual control over transfer of function and its maintenance while relational networks expand is a key issue for understanding language and cognition. Four adults were exposed to a series of three experiments that aimed to investigate this topic in a computerized task. In Experiment 1, two three-member equivalence classes were formed; then, participants were taught to press specific keys given the presence of one stimulus of each class conditionally to the background color of the stimulus. The transfer of conditional control by background color was tested with other stimulus from the same equivalence class. Transfer of function was attested for all participants. In Experiment 2 equivalence classes were expanded to five members and the transfer of conditional control was kept for all participants. In Experiment 3, the background color was established as equivalent to line patterns; the transfer of conditional control was maintained having line patterns as backgrounds. Implications for language development are discussed.

Supervision, Training, and Dissemination

60. The role of an ACT experiential workshop on clinical psychologists in training
Subtopic: training, experiential workshop, defusion
Annalisa Oppo, D. Psych., b. Institute of Behavior, Consumers, Communication, IULM University, Milan (Italy), Dep. of Psychology, University of Parma
Giovambattista Presti, M.D., b. Institute of Behavior, Consumers, Communication, IULM University, Milan (Italy)
Anna Bianca Prevedini, D. Psych., b. Institute of Behavior, Consumers, Communication, IULM University, Milan (Italy)
Francesco Dell'Orco, D.Psych., b. Institute of Behavior, Consumers, Communication, IULM University, Milan (Italy)
Paolo Moderato, Ph.D., b. Institute of Behavior, Consumers, Communication, IULM University, Milan (Italy)

Psychological flexibility and the ability to observe own’s thoughts simply for what they are, thoughts, represent one of the core skills that psychologists in training in the ACT model have to enhance. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the role of an experiential workshop versus a clinical workshop on increasing decentering in clinical psychologists in training. 93 psychologists in training were recruited during a summer school: 42 attended an ACT workshop (AW) and 51 attended a workshop focusing on BT assessment and functional analysis (control workshop (CW)). Both workshops consisted of three-day session (8 hours per day). The AW included a mixture of mindfulness, perspective taking and values-based action exercises; the CW included lessons on basic principles of behavior therapy (BT) with exercises focused on BT consistent case conceptualization. Participants completed a number of measures including Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQII; Bond et al., 2010), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990), Experiences Questionnaire (EQ; Fresco et al., 2007), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Spielberg et al.,1987) at baseline (T0) and at the end of the workshop (T1). A 1 month follow up (T2) was further scheduled. Our results showed an increase in cognitive decentering in the AW not in the BW condition (interaction effect; F (1,74)=4.46; p=0.038). Psychological flexibility did not change from baseline to T1, while worry (main effect; F (1,73=7.10; p=0.009) and state anxiety (main effect; F (1,71=11.77; p<0.001) decreased from baseline to T1 in both groups. Using a linear regression model, we found that psychological flexibility (β=0.465) and worry (β=-0.625) predicted the increase in decentering at T1 (AdjR-square=0.269). This study provided a preliminary support on the role of psychological flexibility in promoting cognitive decentering in psychologists. Further research is needed to analyze psychological flexibility throughout a clinical psychologist’ training and describe the mediators of change in order to provide clinicians with a more effective training.

61. Becoming a Mindful Supervisor: Using mindfulness both as an intervention and supervisory-style
Subtopic: Mindfulness
Kyle C. Horst, M.A. LMFT, Kansas State University
Marcie Lechtenberg, M.A., Kansas State University
Sandra Stith, Ph.D., Kansas State University

Mindfulness-based applications have been applied to multiple contexts of psychotherapy; however, little to no application has been derived for supervision. This poster will suggest both practical ways to integrate mindfulness into supervision as well as using mindfulness as a conceptual approach to supervision. Additionally, we will illustrate these applications by considering how mindfulness can be used to address issues of power and power imbalance in supervision. We emphasize that the incorporation of mindfulness into supervision not only enhances the work and understanding of the supervisee but also positively influences the work of the supervisor and their relationship with the supervisee.

Theoretical and Philosophical Foundations

62. Evaluating the Impact of ACT and CBT Processes on Quality of Life: A Path Analysis
Subtopic: Quality of Life
Allyson Delprino, University at Albany, SUNY
Christopher R. Berghoff, University at Albany, SUNY
Amanda Russo, University at Albany, SUNY
Charles Raffaele, University at Albany, SUNY
Matthew R. Donati, University at Albany, SUNY
John P. Forsyth, University at Albany, SUNY

Anxiety disorders tend to be chronic, debilitating, and are associated with a decreased quality of life (QOL). Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy (tCBT) and newer third generation CBT’s such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) appear efficacious for such disorders, yet emphasize difference processes that affect QOL. Whereas tCBT employs symptom reduction methods in order to increase QOL, ACT suggests that symptom reduction is neither necessary nor sufficient for such change. Rather, ACT suggests that mindfulness and acceptance process, such as experiential avoidance (EA) and cognitive fusion, influence QOL directly, over and above symptom reduction. Thus, ACT theory suggests that behavioral processes should directly influence QOL. By contrast, tCBT theory suggests that such processes impact QOL by first passing through changes in distressing symptomology.

Path analysis was used to investigate the differing models posited by tCBT and ACT. Data was reanalyzed from two randomized clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of ACT and tCBT self-help books in non-clinical international community samples of anxiety sufferers (N = 503 and N = 208). Measures were taken to assess relationships between tCBT (anxiety sensitivity) and ACT processes (EA and cognitive fusion), anxiety symptoms, and QOL. In the ACT model, EA and cognitive fusion were allowed to effect both AS and QOL. The tCBT model included paths from ACT processes to AS, AS to symptoms, and symptoms to QOL. It was hypothesized that the ACT model would demonstrate a significantly better fit to the data than the tCBT model, and that this outcome would replicate across samples.

In both samples, the ACT model was found to provide a good fit to the data (e.g., GFI = .98, CFI = .98, NNFI = .94). The tCBT model demonstrated a poor fit across fit indices (e.g., GFI = .89, CFI = .87, NNFI = .74). Additionally, the chi-square differences tests indicated a significantly better fit of the ACT model in both samples (Δχ2(2) = 48.87 and 107.64, both p < .05). Of particular interest, the ACT model accounted for approximately three times the variance of QOL as did the tCBT model, and this effect also replicated across samples. Thus, it appears that ACT-based theory may provide a more accurate representation of psychopathology, particularly in relation to QOL, than that provided by tCBT-based theory. Implications of the findings will be discussed.

63. Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Processes Fully Mediate the Relation between Worry and Quality of Life: A Multiple Mediation Analysis
Subtopic: Chronic Worry
Matthew R. Donati, University at Albany, SUNY
Kristin N. Herzberg, University at Albany, SUNY
Samantha Callahan, University at Albany, SUNY
Krystal N. Cox, University at Albany, SUNY
Eric Petrone, University at Albany, SUNY
John P. Forsyth, University at Albany, SUNY

Chronic and excessive worry is a core concern of those suffering from General Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Excessive worry and GAD have been linked to impaired well-being, diminished life satisfaction (Stein & Heimberg, 2004), and poor quality of life (QoL) (Henning et al., 2007). Though the prevalence and deleterious effects of excessive worry are well documented, far less is known about the functions of worry and how and why it contributes to human suffering and diminished QoL (Roemer & Orsillo, 2007). Recent work, grounded in the model of psychopathology underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), suggests that the deleterious impact of chronic worry on a range of psychosocial outcomes can be traced back to specific maladaptive processes, chief among them being experiential avoidance (EA). Furthermore, EA, as well as related elements, including a lack of mindfulness and self-compassion, are thought to contribute to maladaptive control over private content, further leading to psychological and behavioral inflexibility, impeding effective action toward valued ends, and yielding a decreased quality of life. Several studies have demonstrated a significant link between EA and worry (Roemer et al., 2005) and suggested inverse relations between GAD and ACT-related elements, such as self-compassion (Roemer & Orsillo, 2007), mindfulness (Roemer et al., 2009), and valued action (Michelson et al., 2011). However, further research is necessary to understand the exact role of these proposed mechanisms of change in relation to worry. Moreover, few studies to date have examined the relations between worry and quality of life in the context of putative ACT-relevant processes that may, either in whole or in part, mediate such relations (Roemer & Orsillo, 2007). Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relation between worry and QoL and the proposed mechanisms of change that may account for this relation.

To examine these relations, healthy undergraduates from the University at Albany, State University of New York (N = 433) completed a battery of well-established and psychometrically sound measures assessing excessive worry, QoL, and several ACT-related mechanisms of change, including acceptance (or conversely EA), mindfulness, and self-compassion. We predicted that, taken together, the posited ACT-related process variables, including EA, would account for the relationship between worry and QoL. Indeed, using a series of tests of multiple mediation, we found that the relation between worry and QoL was fully mediated by the assessed ACT-related process variables. These results as well as the implications of the findings will be presented in the context of understanding the toxic nature of worry itself and interventions that may ameliorate worry-related suffering from an ACT point of view.

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Monday, July 23 - Poster Session #2

Behavioral Medicine

1. Exercise behavior and the Acceptance & Action Questionnaire for Exercise (AAQ-Ex)
Subtopic: Exercise and physical activity
Sarah B. Staats, BA, Wichita State University
Robert D. Zettle, Ph.D, Wichita State University

Background: As reflected by the prevalence of obesity and weight-related diseases, many individuals stand to benefit from regular exercise, but find themselves avoiding it.
Psychological flexibility is one’s willingness to remain in contact with unpleasant thoughts, emotions, memories, and physical sensations in the service of chosen values (Hayes et al., 1999).
Psychological flexibility, and its converse, experiential avoidance, may impact willingness to approach and sustain exercise behavior in the face of unpleasant private experiences.
The current study seeks to validate an exercise-specific measure of psychological flexibility, examining its internal reliability, as well as its concurrent predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity.

Method: Participants were 322 undergraduate students at a Midwestern university.
Gender: 66.8% female (n=215)
Age: M=22.37, SD=6.9; 1Min=18, Max=55; 75.3% were age 18-22
Ethnicity: 83.2% White (n=268), 9.6% Asian (n=31), 6.5% Black or African American (n=21), 6.5% Hispanic or Latino/Latina (n=21), 2.5% American Indian or Alaskan Native (n=8), 0.6% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (n=2)

Results: Four items with low item-total correlations were removed from the original scale in order to increase internal reliability and face validity. Descriptives for the 11-item scale are given.
A correlation matrix displays relationships between the AAQ-Ex, AAQ-II, BI-AAQ, DTS, self-reported exercise behavior and history, self-reported level of physical fitness, and BMI.
Using t-tests, the self-reported exercise behavior and physical fitness of high- and low-avoiders are compared.

Discussion: These results demonstrate this context-specific measure of exercise-related experiential avoidance possesses strong internal reliability and performs better at predicting relevant behavior than does the general AAQ-II or other measures.

The AAQ-Ex also seems to possess discriminant validity, shown by its moderate correlations with similar, neighboring instruments.
The AAQ-Ex may be an important tool for researchers and clinicians working with exercise behavior.

2. The short form of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Convergent Validity
Subtopic: Chronic Pain
John Baranoff, M Clin Psych, University of Queensland
Stephanie Hanrahan, Ph.D, University of Queensland
Dilip Kapur, MBBS, Flinders Medical Centre
Jason Connor, Ph. D, University of Queensland

The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is a 20-item scale used to assess two related behavioural processes: Activity Engagement and Pain Willingness (McCracken et al., 2004). An 8-item version has recently been developed (Fish et al., 2010). The two factor structure has been confirmed in an internet, non-treatment seeking sample. The current study examined the construct and convergent validity of the CPAQ-8 in a treatment seeking sample. Participants were 334 patients attending a multidisciplinary pain service. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis identified the two factor model consisting of Activity Engagement and Pain Willingness factors (SRMR = .039, RMSEA = .063, CFI = .973, TLI = .960) was superior to other models tested. The correlation between the Activity Engagement and Pain Willingness factors was r = .42.The 20-item and 8-item total CPAQ scores were highly correlated (r = .93), as were the Activity Engagement and Pain Willingness factors (r = .92, r = .88). Internal consistency was comparable to the long-form. Scores on both factors were significantly higher for depressed patients, compared to non-depressed patients. The results provide support for the use of the CPAQ-8 in a treatment seeking sample of chronic pain patients.

3. Restore Hope to HIV and TB Patients
Subtopic: People Living with HIV/AIDS and TB
Christian Vonjoe, Health Education Division - Ministry of Health and Sanitation, New England Ville, Medical Stores Freetown

The course of HIV/AIDS and TB elimination in Sierra Leone depends on the level of community knowledge, social stigma, risk behavior modification, provision and uptake of HIV counseling and testing, and access to preventive and treatment facilities.

My main role include counseling, community sensitization, mass media campaign and interpersonal communication for HIV and TB patients to reduce stigma, marginalization and to help restore their psychological suffering.

Survey conducted by the SLDHS 2008, revealed that 83% of men and 69% of women are aware of HIV/AIDS issues with 1.5% prevalence among 15-49yrs Sierra Leoneans. Unfortunately, stigma and discrimination against People Living With HIV ( PLWHIV) still remain a challenge as 5% of women and 15% of men expressed accepting attitude of PLWHIVs. There is TB Stigma and marginalization attached to the disease especially. in poor communities with high illiteracy and may lead to delay in care seeking.

Clinical Interventions and Interests

4. PTSD Intensive Outpatient Program at Togus VAMC: Changes in Mindful Awareness and Acceptance on the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)
Subtopic: Mindfulness or PTSD
Erica L. England, Ph.D., VA Maine Healthcare System (Togus VAMC)
Jerold Hambright, Ph.D., VA Maine Healthcare System (Togus VAMC)
Kevin Polk, Ph.D., VA Maine Healthcare System (Togus VAMC)

This program evaluation study examined pre- and post-treatment scores on the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al., 2008) for 39 male veterans who participated in the ACT-based PTSD Intensive Outpatient Program (PTSD IOP) at Togus VAMC for clinical care. Data were collected solely for the purpose of evaluating this program’s effectiveness. The PHLMS is a 20-item, bi-dimensional self-report measure assessing the two key components of mindfulness: experiential awareness and non-judgmental acceptance. A significant increase in Awareness (t (38) = -3.17, p < .01) occurred from pre-treatment (M = 33.95, SD = 5.38) to post-treatment (M = 36.33, SD = 5.47). Conversely, Acceptance did not change significantly (t (38) = .64, p = .53, pre-treatment M = 21.49, SD = 5.61, post-treatment M = 20.92, SD = 6.29). Results suggest that participation in the PTSD IOP is associated with an increase in self-reported mindful awareness, but not necessarily increased acceptance.

5. Veteran Improvement Following 5-Day ACT Treatment for PTSD: Pre- and Post-Test Differences Based on Commuter Status
Subtopic: PTSD
Abby Hurley, M.A., Wheaton College
Marjorie Crozier, M.A., LaSalle University

This poster will provide supply data regarding the efficacy of a 5-day ACT partial treatment program at the Maine VAMC for decreasing symptom distress (depression, avoidance) and increasing valued living amongst the veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. It will present a comparison of pre- and post-test performance on the Acceptance and Action Questionaire-2 (AAQ-2), the Physical Health Questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9) and the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) with discussion of both statistical and clinical significance. The study also assesses whether pre- and post-test performance differs depending on commuter vs. lodger status. Given these findings, future considerations for working with rural populations will be provided.

Subtopic: Mindfulness, Sport Psychology, Anxiety
Timothy R. Pineau, M.A., The Catholic University of America
Carol R. Glass, Ph.D., The Catholic University of America
Keith A. Kaufman, Ph.D., The Catholic University of America

Preliminary analysis of data collected in a controlled study of MSPE (N = 55 Division I cross-country runners) examined how different measures of mindfulness, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer et al., 2006) and the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al., 2008), differentially related to state and trait sport anxiety. Total mindfulness scores were inversely related to trait sport anxiety (FFMQ) and state cognitive anxiety before a race (PHLMS). However, only the Act with Awareness, Nonjudge (FFMQ), and Acceptance (PHLMS) subscales were significantly inversely correlated with total or cognitive trait sport anxiety. Conversely, the Observe subscale (FFMQ) was negatively related to state cognitive anxiety, while the Observe, Describe, Nonreact (FFMQ), and Awareness (PHLMS) subscales were positively related to state sport confidence. These results elucidate the nature of the relationship between mindfulness and anxiety in athletes, and have implications for how to tailor MSPE to help athletes manage anxiety.

7. Psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war Veterans
Subtopic: PTSD
Eric C. Meyer, Ph.D., VA VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans
Richard Seim, Ph.D., VA VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans
Jonathan Tekell, Baylor University
Matthew Woodward, VA VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans
Nathan A. Kimbrel, Ph.D., VA VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans
Marc I. Kruse, VA VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans

While much is known regarding predictors of PTSD, relatively little of this knowledge directly informs treatment. This study examined whether psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance, measured using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), accounted for unique variance in PTSD symptoms over and above the “Big 3” personality factors and other well-established predictors of PTSD (trauma severity, perceived threat, peritraumatic dissociation, recent life stress, social support). We also examined whether AAQ-II scores accounted for unique variance after controlling for the avoidance symptoms of PTSD. Trauma-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan war Veterans (n=109), of whom 44% had current PTSD, completed a structured interview and self-report measure of PTSD, and self-report measures of the other predictors. Using hierarchical regression, higher AAQ-II scores demonstrated incremental, predictive validity by accounting for unique variance in PTSD symptoms after controlling for all other predictors, including the avoidance symptoms of PTSD. Psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance may represent a malleable risk factor for PTSD.

8. The effect of cognitive defusion on self -relevant negative thought : Examining the impact of "I think that" phrase.
Subtopic: defusion
Yuki Shigemoto, graduate student of psychology, Doshisha University
Muto Takashi, Department of Psychology, Doshisha University

This study investigated the impact of defusion with dufusion protocol and telling participants the effect of defusion on a non-clinical sample in the context of negative self-statement. Defusion was also manipulated through the visual presentation of self-statements, with each presented in two formats (defusion and neutral). Neutral format consist of 10 negative self-statements. Defusion format consist of adding “I think that” phrase to neutral phrase. Fifty-four undergraduate students (22 male, 32 female) were assigned one of three conditions (identify, non-identify, and explanation). Identify condition was built with defusion protocol and explanation about the effect of defusion. In non-identify condition, explanation about the effect of defusion changed into explanation that the effect of defusion is not clear. Explanation condition consist of only defusion protocol. Participants rated each self-statement for comfort, believability and willingness. Results showed that defusion format decreased discomfort and increase willingness and believability relative to neutral format. Non-identify condition decrease discomfort and increase willingness relative to identify condition.

9. The Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Believability Scale as a Measure of Cognitive Fusion
Subtopic: depression
Suzanne R. Gird, M.A., Wichita State University
Robert D. Zettle, Ph.D., Wichita State University
Blake K. Webster, M.A., Wichita State University
Alexandra L. Wagener, M.A., Wichita State University
Charles A. Burdsal, Ph.D., Wichita State University

The psychometric properties of a believability scale added to the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-B; Hollon & Kendall, 1980) as a putative measure of cognitive fusion was examined in college student and clinically depressed samples. The scale demonstrated adequate test-retest reliability (r = .81) over 3 months with a college student sample, high levels of internal consistency in both student and clinical samples, and an ability to discriminate between the two. Exploratory factor analyses with the two samples revealed unique factor structures for each. These findings as well as subsequent regression analyses using factor scores suggest that the fused thoughts of college students and those seeking treatment for depression differ not only in their dimensionality, but also in their relationship to depression. Implications of the results for further use of the ATQ-B as an index of cognitive fusion in clinical process research are discussed.

10. A Preliminary Study on Examining the Effects of Creative Hopelessness
Subtopic: Creative Hopelessness, Change Agenda, Rule-governed behavior
Mie Sakai, Graduate School of Psychology, Doshisha University
Takashi Muto, Department of Psychology, Doshisha University
Akihiko Masuda, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University
Naoko Kishita, Graduate School of Psychology, Doshisha University, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

Although, Creative Hopelessness has been considered to be an important intervention component designed to reduce Experimental Avoidance, the empirical evidence to support its effect is relatively limited employing a single-group pre-post quasi-experiment design. The present study examined the effect of a Creative Hopelessness Protocol on the subjective measures of believability and motivation of Change Agenda. The Creative Hopelessness protocol included a CH rationale, CH-based homework, and Acceptance exercise. The CH rationale included a session and metaphors. Thirteen undergraduate students who had anxiety tendencies completed the protocol, and data were collected at pre-intervention, post-CH session, post-CH metaphors, post-homework, and post-acceptance exercise. The believability and motivation scores following the Acceptance exercise were lower compared to those of the pre-intervention (believability; p<.05, motivation; p<.10). However, the significant decreases following the CH session and CH metaphors were not found in the both scales. We will also present findings of other study variables.

11. Preliminary results of an ACT-based group program for patients with anxiety disorders
Subtopic: Anxiety
Nina Stoeckel, Ph.D., Geisinger Medical Center
Hope C. Mowery, Ph.D., Geisinger Medical Center
Linda F. Brown, Ph.D., Indiana University Bloomington
Charlotte Collins, Ph.D., Geisinger Medical Center

The literature on ACT-based group therapy for patients with anxiety disorders is limited and focuses primarily on specific diagnostic categories.

The aim of our project was the development, implementation, and evaluation of an ACT-based therapy group for broad-based treatment of a variety of anxiety disorders. The ten session program has its roots in Eifert & Forsyth’s (2005)¹ approach. Participants were assessed following the first, fifth, and tenth session using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Scale (STAI-T), the Acceptance & Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). Analyses are presented for the first 15 participants. Results reveal that anxiety decreases over the course of the program whereas psychological flexibility and quality of life increase.

These preliminary results suggest that participants with a variety of anxiety disorders benefit from this type of group.

¹ Eifert, G.H., & Forsyth, J. P. (2005). Acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety disorders: A practitioner’s treatment guide using mindfulness, acceptance, and values-based behavior change strategies. New Harbinger: Oakland, CA.

12. Mindfulness, Psychological Flexibility, and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Rumination
Subtopic: Rumination
Daniel Millstein, Yale University, Department of Psychology
David Klemanski, Yale University, Department of Psychology

In light of research on interventions incorporating mindfulness and acceptance into the treatment of depression, the present study sought to highlight the relationship between these constructs and depressive rumination. Rumination, a passive, repetitive focus on one's symptoms, has been implicated as a key process in depression. Viewed as a form of avoidance, rumination can be conceptualized as a psychologically inflexible attempt to turn away from painful experiences present in depression. Using measures of rumination, psychological flexibility, and mindfulness, we investigated their direct and indirect effects on quality of life in a clinical sample. Results indicated that psychological inflexibility and decreased mindfulness were significantly associated with reduced quality of life. In both models, rumination was shown to mediate this association. While future research will need to clarify the directionality of the findings over multiple timepoints, these data further support the underlying models of mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies for depression.

Subtopic: Return to work / Vocational Psychology
Sigmund Gismervik, M.D., Ph.D. candidate, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Egil Fors, MD, Ph.D., Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Marius Fimland, Post Doc., Norwegian University of Science and Technology

BACKGROUND: In occupational medicine, there has been a paradigm shift from disease treatment to disability rehabilitation and management. Long term sick leave is now considered to be the result of interactions between the worker, her social surroundings and three systems: the healthcare system, workplace environment and financial compensation system (Franche 2002; Loisel 2001; van Oostrom 2009). This calls for complex interventions integrated with physical exercise (Lambeek 2010).

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) using an individual outpatient worker intervention, has been evaluated for return to work (RTW) in one preliminary RCT (Dahl 2004). ACT has been proposed as effective treatment for a wide range of disorders (Pull 2009). Little evidence exists though on the effectiveness of inpatient ACT group interventions for complex symptom disorders, the effect on return to work (RTW) and the health economic aspects.

OBJECTIVES: In Trondheim, Norway we want to examine the effect of ACT based inpatient rehabilitation with RTW as the main outcome. Secondary outcomes will be quality of life, change in symptoms and health economic analysis.

DESIGN / TREATMENT: All patients treated will be on sick-leave for a multitude of different diagnoses but mainly musculoskeletal pain conditions and/or psychological disorders. Patients receive a letter of invitation from the Norwegian National Labor and Welfare Service. Those who agree to participate will take part in a prospective, consecutive RCT. The treatment group will receive 2 or 4 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation in a newly established rehabilitation center.

A complex intervention is designed integrating:
1) A physical (exercise) intervention
2) Collaboration between stakeholders and
3) An ACT based group intervention tailored for patients on sick leave

14. “Mi Amiga Dolores”:Culturally Informed Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Puerto Rican adults with Fibromyalgia
Subtopic: Culture
Yari Colon, Ph.D., VA Caribbean Healthcare System
Mayra Berrios-Hernandez, Ph.D., VA Caribbean Healthcare System
Karina Navas-Martinez, Ph.D., VA Caribbean Healthcare System
Iris Abreu-Colon, M.A., VA Caribbean Healthcare System

There is a call for evidenced based treatments to be adjusted to better meet the needs of different cultural groups (Sue, et al., 2009) and for these adaptations to be reported (Bernal et al., 2009). Hayes and colleagues (2011), suggest that cultural modifications may make Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) more effective. Despite ACT’s proven effectiveness with multiple health-related problems, particularly chronic pain, minorities continue to be underrepresented in the general ACT treatment literature (Woidneck, et.al., in press). Moreover, little is known on how ACT has been culturally-adapted and implemented for use with Puerto Rican adults. The aim of this poster is to describe efforts to culturally adapt ACT for the treatment of Fibromyalgia with Puerto Rican adults. We will describe an eight week ACT intervention for Puerto Rican veterans and portray: 1) efforts to link cultural knowledge to ACT model and techniques 2) benefits and limitations of cultural adaption 3) recommendations and future directions. The hope is to contribute to the discussion of the cultural adaption of ACT and foster fertile ground for feasibility and efficacy studies of culturally informed ACT for Fibromyalgia.

15. Beyond the disciplining parent: building parental acceptance
Subtopic: parenting
Oana Gavita, Ph.D., Babes-Bolyai University

Reviews (see also Dix & Meunier, 2009) showed that parental emotion-regulation deficits often reflect incompatibility between parental mood and the requirements of effective parenting (Downey & Coyne, 1990; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O’Hare, &
Neuman, 2000). In line with this, research efforts have been directed recently towards understanding factors that contribute to parental emotional-regulation processes. There are incipient efforts to address parental emotion-regulation aspects (e.g., emotional and behavioral; Ben-Porath, 2010) in parenting programs for reducing child disruptive behavior, and it was proposed that such programs could be enhanced by additional investigation of parental emotion-regulation strategies as a distal etiopathogenetic mechanism of children psychopathology.

16. Relationships between acceptance-related constructs, anxiety, and speaking performance in public speaking anxiety
Subtopic: Public Speaking Anxiety, Defusion, Acceptance, Awareness
Lisa Glassman, M.S., Drexel University
Alyssa Matteucci, Drexel University
Evan Forman, Ph.D., Drexel University
James Herbert, Ph.D.,
Meltem Izzetoglu, Ph.D., Drexel University
Lauren Bradley, Drexel University

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) strategies teach individuals how to co-exist with anxiety without expending cognitive resources on suppression or reframing. Thus, ACT may free up resources for engaging in behaviors related to enhancing performance. However, it is unclear how the interrelated constructs of defusion, awareness, and acceptance are associated with performance and the subjective experience of anxiety. We examined correlations (n=19) between psychological acceptance, defusion, and awareness, self-reported anxiety, and observer-rated performance in a population with public speaking anxiety. Acceptance and defusion were negatively correlated with anxiety (r=-.46, p=.05; r=-.24, p=.31). Awareness was not associated with anxiety, but was strongly negatively associated with performance quality (r=-.42, p=.08). Defusion and acceptance were moderately positively associated with performance (r=.26, p=.30; r=.35, p=.15); acceptance predicted observer-rated anxiety (β=-.46, t=-2.11, p=.05). Findings suggest that interventions utilizing acceptance and defusion may enhance performance and reduce anxiety, and awareness may be detrimental to performance improvements.

17. Do Social Psychology constructs such as Need for Cognitive Closure have utility in treatment component matching in ACT? A Preliminary analysis
Subtopic: Treatment development
Taleisha Jones, San Jose State University
Jennifer Gregg, Ph.D., San Jose State University

The need for cognitive closure (NFCC) is a social psychology construct that has been investigated in it’s relationship to needs-based values assessment but not in its relationship to meaning-based personal values, such as those targeted in ACT, nor in its potential utility as a screening tool to guide treatment decisions (i.e., whether to start with values or mindfulness). The present study examines the relationship between meaning-based personal values and NFCC in both college students (N =125) and distressed breast cancer survivors (N = 41) in order examine these relationships and take a preliminary look at its usefulness. Results indicate that specific values such as health, education, and friendship values relate significantly to the need for cognitive closure in both populations, with relationship values having a stronger relationship in cancer survivors. Reasons for these findings are discussed in terms of increasing the clinical utility of the measurement of such constructs.

18. The Use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Reduce Distress Caused by Auditory Hallucinations and Increase Value-Based Living with Individuals Diagnosed with Schizophrenia in a Community Mental Health Clinic: A Pilot Study
Subtopic: Schizophrenia
Aaron Fett, M.A., Palo Alto University
Julia Hernandez, M.S., Palo Alto University

The present study examined the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment (ACT) therapy for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia, experiencing distress over auditory hallucinations. Eight participants in a community mental health setting, diagnosed with schizophrenia attended 12 one hour weekly group therapy sessions. Data is collected at pre and post treatment, measuring the frequency, duration, amount of distress, and functional impairment caused by their auditory hallucinations (as measured by the PSYRATS-AHRS), the amount of distress and functional impairment caused by their delusions (as measured by the PSYRATS-DRS), their level of acceptance and ability to defuse from their auditory hallucinations (as measured by the VAAS) and their level of engagement with valued-based activities (as measured by the VLQ). It is expected that participants will see a reduction in distress and functional impairment caused by auditory hallucinations, and increase their engagement in individualized value-based activities.

19. Understanding and Caring of Children at Ankur Counseling Center,Nepal
Subtopic: Children
Chhori Laxmi Maharjan, Friends of Needy Children/Ankur Counseling Center,Nepal

Friends of Needy Children(FNC-1996) is a social organization working with/for Nepalese children/youths who have had traumatic past experiences through poverty, extreme domestic violence, orphaned, HIV/AIDs, as well as thousands of girls working as indentured servants.
Despite a nurturing environment and excellent education, the children continued to experienced cases of lower educational achievement, separation anxiety, low self-esteem as well as psychological crises. Therefore, Ankur Counseling Center (ACC) was established in 2006 with an aim to improve quality of life for children of FNC.
Due to lack of technical knowledge and skills, Nepalese psychologists have been facing challenges in counseling and treatment planning. Psychotherapeutic interventions are still a new born child in Nepal.

With an introductory class by Dr. Louise, ACC have been using basic components of ACT to children/youths. Additional training on ACT seems importantly needed and it would be effective for the Nepalese children, youths and Adults as well.

20. An Interactive Health Communication Application as a platform for disseminating ACT: A pilot study
Subtopic: Web-based application
Arne Lillelien, Vestre Viken HF, Norway
Trym Nordstrand Jacobsen, Molde DPS, Norway
Didrik Heggdal, Vestre Viken HF, Norway
Deede Gammon, Oslo University Hospital, Norway

Interactive Health Communication Applications (IHCAs) are online systems used by patients to support them in managing their health issues. IHCAs can include modules such as self-guided treatments, social support, evidence-based educational material and secure communication with care providers. The current paper reports from a pilot project aiming to incorporate components of ACT into a research-based IHCA that can be used for self-management in collaboration with care providers. Mental health service users and clinicians who have experience with ACT have collaborated in specifying user requirements for an IHCA referred to as PsyConnect. Preliminary user requirements include; 1) support for mapping values and aims along life domains, 2) ACT homework exercises, 3) feedback systems for tracking changes in status.

The paper discusses some of the challenges in adapting ACT into a IHCA in ways that are clinically sound and feasible organizationally.

21. Attitudes and Internalized Homophobia in Gay and Lesbian College Students
Subtopic: GLBT
Mickey White, B.S., University of North Texas
Amy Murrell, Ph.D., University of North Texas

Stigma towards gays and lesbians has existed for many years. Previous studies since the 1980s have shown that heterosexuals often express homonegative attitudes towards homosexuals. These negative attitudes have also been theorized as being adopted by and internalized within the stigmatized individual, known as internalized homophobia. The current study explored the predictive qualities of homonegative attitudes on internalized homophobia in a sample of 79 gay, lesbian and bisexual college students. It was found that both modern [Beta = .582, p < .01 (in men); Beta = .605, p < .001 (in women)] and traditional attitudes [Beta = .730, p < .001 (in men); Beta = .621, p < .001(in women)] towards homosexuality are significant predictors of internalized homophobia, and also that traditional attitudes are better predictors of internalized homophobia.

22. A Review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with Anxiety Disorders
Subtopic: Anxiety
Katie Sharp, University of Kansas

Anxiety disorders are the most widespread cause of distress among individuals seeking treatment from mental health services in the United States However, despite the prevalence of research on effective therapeutic interventions and their promising outcomes, significant shortcomings remain. In response to these drawbacks, a novel treatment acceptance and commitment therapy was developed in attempt to revolutionize the conceptualization and treatment of anxiety disorders. The new treatment takes advantage of the power of exposure therapies while simultaneously addressing issues of comorbidity, fear, and avoidance related to them, as well as adding emphasis on clients’ overall quality of life. Although the research base is small, a review of the current literature supports the notion that the ACT model of anxiety may be appropriate for how these disorders are conceptualized and subsequently treated.

23. A parent of a child with disabilities : A case presentation.
Subtopic: Parent having a child with disabilities
Shinji Tani, University of Ritsumeikan
Kotomi Kitamura, Osaka Univirsity of Human Sciences

This research reports the progress of ACT intervention for a parent of a child with severe disabilities.
Methods: Case formulation was completed to the point of ACT. Experiential exercises were introduced to the parent on the basis of the case formulation. Intervention sessions lasting 40 minutes were held once a weak, and a total of 12 sessions were conducted. Four measures BDI-II, POMS (Profile of Mood States), DACS (Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale) and AAC-II were analyzed to investigate the effects of the intervention at the time of the first, seventh, and final sessions. All dialogues of the session were transcribed, and the transcript was coded into 12 categories, consisting of six psychological flexibilities and six psychological inflexibilities. The relations among these 12 categories were analyzed using the SPSS Text-Analysis. Result: The BDI-II score, which was 12 at the first session, decreased to 8 at the seventh and 4 at the final session. On the POMS, the scores of Anger-Hostilitye and Fatigue, which were “moderately high” at the first session, decreased to the usual level at the seventh session, and Vague increased remarkably by the final session. On the DACS, the Future Denial score, which was “high“ at the first session, improved to the usual level. AAQ-II was 46 points at the first, 49 at seventh, and 52 at the final session. The text-analysis revealed that as the sessions proceeded, the amount of the parent’s psychological inflexibility reduced. These results show that ACT is useful in helping parents of children with disabilities to increase their psychological flexibility.

Subtopic: Military, PTSD, Anxiety
Robert Astur, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
Jacqueline Pistorello, Ph.D., University of Nevada-Reno
Steve Hayes, University of Nevada-Reno
Lisette Roman, Connecticut College
Bryan Still, Naval Submarine Base, New London
 
Up to 33% of enlisted submariners do not complete their first enlistment due to mental health or misconduct reasons. In efforts to increase the ability of our sailors to deal with the inevitable stressors of the submarine environment, we designed and implemented an ACT-based resiliency training program. 290 active duty male US Navy members reporting to New London submarines were recruited and received 4 hours of skill training from ACT protocols tailored for submariner populations. Additionally, we characterized psychological risk using measures of childhood and family adversity, acceptance, dissociation, and depression. Lastly, we assessed efficacy of our resiliency training by examining change in personal values as measured by the Personal Values Questionnaire (Blackledge & Ciarrocchi, 2005). Examining those sailors likely embracing their values for avoidance reasons, we observe a significant post-training improvement in personal values for career, but not for relationships. Additional and long-term Navy performance results will be discussed.
 
25. The Role of Experiential Avoidance and Other Related Constructs in Anxiety Disorders
Subtopic: Experiential Avoidance
Brian Pilecki, M.A., Fordham University
Dean McKay, Ph.D., Fordham University
Patrick Milgram
 

Experiential avoidance (EA) is a core construct of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), and is defined as the attempt to escape or avoid the form, frequency, or situational sensitivity of private events, even when the attempts to do so causes psychological harm (Hayes et al., 1996). Experiential avoidance shares several conceptual features, namely the negative reaction to one’s private experiences, with other concepts related to anxiety disorders that include anxiety sensitivity, obsessive beliefs, health anxiety, and distress tolerance. Assessments measuring these constructs were completed by 248 undergraduate participants.. It is expected that these constructs will be significantly related. Moreover, it is believed that a model with negative affect as a mediator will account for differences in experiential avoidance amongst participants who score high on the other related constructs. This would suggest a role for underlying mood processes in conceptualizing experiential avoidance. Recommendations for future research will be made.

26. A Transdiagnostic Group Therapy Treatment for Emotional Dysregulation: Preliminary Investigation of a New Protocol
Subtopic: Emotion Dysregulation, Group Therapy, Transdiagnostic Interventions
Amynta Hayenga, Wright Institute
Patricia Zurita Ona, The Berkeley Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies Clinic

Recent research conceptualizes emotional dysregulation as a transdiagnostic process that heightens pathology across a variety of psychological disorders. Given the utility and efficiency of treating this process across diagnostic categories, a universal group therapy protocol has been developed for clients with anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and/or chronic anger, shame, and guilt. Treatment will entail twelve weekly sessions teaching a set of skills that were carefully integrated from several third-wave behavioral therapies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. At the poster session, pilot data will be presented from the first round of the group. We will examine changes in symptomatology (DASS), maladaptive coping behavior (CCI), and the process variables of experiential avoidance (AAQ) and difficulties in emotion regulation (DERS). Details about the group protocol, skills covered, and client handouts will be provided accordingly.

27. An investigation of the structural and predictive validity of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II among treatment seeking substance users.
Subtopic: Substance Use, AAQ-II
Kenneth M Carpenter, Ph.D., Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute
Magdalena Kulesza, Ph.D., Lousiana State University
Frank W. Bond, Ph.D., Goldsmiths, University of London
Laura Feder, Psy.D., Rutgers University
Frances Levin, M.D., Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute
Edward V. Nunes, M.D., Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute
 
Aim. The structural and predictive validity of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – version II (AAQ-II), a self-report measure of experiential avoidance and psychological inflexibility, were tested. Method. Five-hundred and twenty individuals seeking outpatient treatment for substance misuse (Heroin, Cocaine, Cannabis, Alcohol) completed the 49-item trial version of the AAQ-II, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and a structured clinical interview as part of an intake screening protocol. Results. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) supported the single-factor structure (Bond et al., 2011) (X2 /df= 2.8; CFI= 0.98; SRMR= 0.03) and strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90) of the AAQ-II. The AAQ-II and BDI-II scores were significantly correlated (r=0.73, p <.001) and both were significantly associated with the amount of cannabis smoked per smoking day in the past month among individuals seeking treatment for cannabis dependence (AAQ-II r=0.40, p <.001; BDI=II r=0.37, p=.001). Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated the AAQ-II remained a significant predictor of cannabis use after controlling for BDI-II scores (B=.44, p <.007); the BDI -II was not predictive of cannabis use after controlling for the AAQ-II (B=.03, p < .83). Among cocaine users, the AAQ-II was associated with the frequency of use (r=.22; p < 05); this effect was significantly diminished when controlling for BDI-II scores. The AAQ-II was not significantly related to substance use measures among heroin and alcohol dependent individuals. Conclusion. The AAQ-II has favorable psychometric properties among treatment seeking substance dependent participants and suggests experiential avoidance, as measured by the AAQ-II, may be an important factor in understanding variability in cannabis use among those seeking treatment for its use.
 
28. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the rehabilitation of women on long-term sick leave due to mental ill-health and/or pain - A preliminary randomized controlled trial
Subtopic: Return to work
Anna Finnes, M.S., University of Uppsala, Sweden
Carina Wennman, M.S., Uppsala academic hospital, Sweden
 
The sick-listing pattern differ between men and women in Sweden. Women overall have longer periods of sick leave. Their complex of problems are generally more often vaguely described which may hinder implementation of adequate rehabilitation. Due to changes in the regulations of the Swedish health insurance system, approximately 1 100 women in Uppsala County on long-term sick leave due to pain and/or psychological illhealth are calculated to be transferred from the National Insurance Office to the Employment Office between March 2010 and June 2011. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of three different rehabilitation models carried out along with the process of transference in the insurance system.

The study is an ongoing RCT (n= 247) with repeated measures and three conditions: 1) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), 2) multidisciplinary team intervention (MDT) and 3) Treatment as Usual (TAU) comprising the standard program offered by the public employment office. Dependent variables include employment status, extent of sicklisting, general health, satisfaction with life, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and level of pain.

Data collection is ongoing and results and one-year-follow-up data will be evaluated during spring 2012 and presented at the ACBS Annual World Conference X in Washington, D.C., 2012.

29. Integrating Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) into traditional Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
Subtopic: Depression
Leandra Hallis, M.A., Psy. D. cand., Douglas Mental Health University Institute
Frédérick Dionne, Ph.D., Centre universitaire de Québec (Canada)
Bärbel Knäuper, Ph.D., McGill University
Luisa Cameli, Ph.D., The Emotional Health CBT Clinic

Traditional CBT (i.e., Beck’s cognitive therapy) has proven to be an empirically effective treatment for various psychological disorders. However, since the main focus in traditional CBT is on modifying the content of cognitions, specific techniques that train people to accept and detach from painful thoughts and emotions are lacking but are equally important. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) can help clients change the way they interact with their thoughts and feelings and such skills can be used to optimize traditional CBT treatment for psychological disorders. We propose that offering a therapy that includes both CBT and ACT strategies allows people to have more options for dealing with distressing thoughts and emotions and thus increases the probability that change will occur without being incompatible. This poster will examine the feasibility, applicability and coherence of integrating strategies coming from traditional CBT and ACT.

30. ACT for Insomniacs
Subtopic: Insomnia
Guy Meadows Ph.D., The Sleep School

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) offers a unique and gentle non-drug based approach to overcoming chronic insomnia. It seeks to increase people’s willingness to experience the conditioned physiological and psychological discomfort commonly associated with not sleeping.

Such acceptance paradoxically acts to lessen the brains level of nocturnal arousal, thus encouraging a state of rest and sleepiness, rather than struggle and wakefulness. Additional focus on valued driven behaviour also acts to avert unhelpful patterns of experiential avoidance and promote the ideal safe environment from which good quality sleep can emerge.

The application and merits for using ACT approaches such as acceptance and willingness, mindfulness and defusion and values and committed action for the treatment of chronic insomnia are discussed and compared to the traditional cognitive behavioural strategies.

31. Developing therapeutic Self-service in South Africa
Subtopic: Developing Nations
Yoav Van der Heyden, Private

Power imbalance is present on all levels of social engagement, including the therapeutic setting. In South Africa, the legacy of colonialism and it's child, Apartheid, continue to permeate social relations, and this is not always filtered by the desire to 'Do good'. Having trained as a Clinical Psychologist, I believe that in ACT I have found an approach that allows the dissemination of psychotherapeutic knowledge and practice in a manner that can overcome the historical ‘North-South’ approach of the ‘knower’ that provides for the ignorant’. Through my own experience of experientially learning ACT and CBS, I have learned a new way of engaging with clients and sharing the power of knowledge. Through this poster I hope to be able to share my experiences of discovery as well as the dreams I have of empowering a therapeutic self-service that can help to dissolve power issues, whilst growing self-fulfillment.

32. ACT for Sierra Leone
Subtopic: youth trauma/rape
Hannah Bockarie, DONBOSCO Fambul

I work with DONBOSCO Fambul at a girls shelter and I find that in Sierra Leone, domestic sexual abuse is increasing and it takes place as a result of parental ignorance and lack of knowledge. Most times it is manifested through parents given husbands to there children at an early childhood stage.e.g. Woman telling her 6 years old girl to say good morning to her husband of 40 and above. This statement exposes the girl to sexual abuse even though the mothers say it ignorantly. However, with the use of an ACT approach many clients that are stigmatized, and have abnormal behavior leading to stress and psychological problems, now positively cope.

Educational Settings

33. Can a short ACT intervention targeting defusion from self-judgments undermine the negative effects of shame on academic performance?
Subtopic: Shame
Brian D. Cooper, University of Nevada, Reno
Julian Bartke, University of Nevada, Reno
Steven C. Hayes, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno

Shame stems from the dysphoric emotions that involve negative evaluations and conceptualization of one’s own self (Niedenthal, Price, Tangney, & Gavanski, 1994), and is generalized as an intense emotion associated with serious failures and moral transgressions (Dalgleish & Power, 1999). Students often experience the self-conscious emotion shame in academia when their thoughts begin to focus on the negative aspects of themselves in an academic environment. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a psychotherapeutic modality focused on creating fundamental changes in how to approach and deal with emotions (Hayes et al., 1999), such as those associated with shame. The present study uses ACT as a model to target identification with negative self-judgments by emphasizing the standpoint of self-as-context. 60 university undergraduate students who meet a criteria associated with internalized shame are randomly assigned to 2 conditions: the ACT group will be exposed to an ACT-based process intervention that focuses on self-as-context. The control intervention group will receive an inactive process intervention. The two groups will also complete an intellectual performance task. We will see if the ACT intervention group shows better results than the control intervention group at the intellectual performance task, thus demonstrating the beneficial effects of targeting detachment from negative and inhibiting self-judgments. We will see if the results will have potential implications for refinement of ACT-based adjustments to college programs.

Functional Contextual Approaches in Related Disciplines

34. Emotion Regulation and Socialization in Racial-ethnic Minority Families
Subtopic: Children and families
Marie-Christine Andre, Suffolk University
Lisa Coyne, Suffolk University
Jadig Garcia, Suffolk University
Alysha Thompson, Suffolk University
Xheni Vaqari, Suffolk University
Angela Burke Currie, Suffolk University

In the adult ACT literature, emotion suppression tends to be associated with negative outcomes. Yet, little is known about how these processes work in children and in ethnic minority families in the U.S. Although it has been suggested that the socialization of emotion in young children may be affected by cultural factors, research on the impact of parental and societal expectations on the emotion regulation of racial-ethnic minority children in the U.S. is very scarce. Thus, our study sought to investigate the relationship between child and parent emotion regulation in a diverse sample of African-American, Latino and White mother-child dyads recruited from Head Start centers in the U.S. Mothers completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Coping with Children's Negative Emotion Scale, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales, and two self-expressiveness questionnaires. Mothers and children's teachers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist about the children's regulation. Preliminary results suggest that racial-ethnic minority mothers perceive their children as significantly less regulated compared to White mothers (p=.003). Additional results, implications and limitations will be presented.

Other

35. Validation of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) in Iranian patients with chronic pain
Subtopic: chronic pain
Fatemeh Mesgarian, MSc, Shahed University
Ali Asghari, Ph.D., Shahed University
Mohammad Reza Shaeiri, Ph.D., Shahed University

This paper examines the psychometric properties of a Persian language version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (P-CPAQ), in the Iranian population. After translation of the CPAQ from English into Persian and pilot testing, a total of 245 patients with chronic pain completed the P-CPAQ and measures of depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, disability, catastrophizing and pain intensity. Test-retest reliability was examined by completing the P-CPAQ twice, 14 days apart, by 24 chronic pain patients. Principal Components factor analysis confirmed the same 2-factor solution as the original English CPAQ (activity engagement and pain willingness). Furthermore, results showed that the P-CPAQ presents a good internal consistency (α= 0.84), an acceptable test-retest reliability (r = 0.71). The authors suggest that the P-CPAQ is sufficiently valid and reliable for clinical and research purposes in the Iranian population.

36. Acceptance and pain-related interference in Iranian women with chronic pain
Subtopic: chronic pain
Fatemeh Mesgarian, MSc, Shahed University
Ali Asghari, Ph.D., Shahed University
Mohammad Reza Shaeiri, Ph.D., Shahed University

The association between pain-related interference and acceptance has been shown in previous studies. However little is known about whether acceptance can predict pain-related interference when the relationship is controlled for pain intensity, depression and anxiety.
In this study 176 Iranian women with chronic pain (mean age=45.6 years; S.D=12.5) completed measures of pain intensity, pain-related interference, chronic pain acceptance, depression and anxiety.

Correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between acceptance, pain intensity, pain-related interference, anxiety and depression was significant (p < 0.01).
In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, after controlling for patients’ pain intensity, depression and anxiety, pain acceptance accounted for significant variance (β= -0.51, P < 0.001) in pain-related interference. Pain acceptance was more strongly related to pain related-interference than pain intensity, depression and anxiety. In general, consistent with the studies in other countries, the results of the present study suggest that pain acceptance plays an important role in adjustment to chronic pain regardless of cultural and language differences between countries.

Performance-Enhancing Interventions

37. Using ACT in the workplace
Subtopic: Emotion-regulation
Oana Gavita, Ph.D., Babes-Bolyai University

While maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies have been quite constantly linked to psychopathology (for a review see Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010), other adaptive emotion-regulations strategies, like acceptance, were linked to mental health, well-being, job satisfaction and to high performance (Daus & Ashkanasy, 2005). However, recent findings on emotion-regulation processes have rarely been integrated in the work performance context-specificity (i.e., emotional regulation to work
performance; Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010). The aim of this research is to document the comparative efficacy of reappraisal and acceptance based emotion-regulation strategies on work performance. Implications of the findings are discussed relative to specific relevant processes for organizational and individual performance contributing to the development of intervention programs for enhancing work productivity.

Prevention and Community-based Interventions

38. Brief ACT Workshops for Parents in Community Settings
Subtopic: Parents
Alexis Llewellyn, Ph.D., Katy Center for Psychology & Counseling Services
Candice Baugh, M.A., LMHC, NYU School of Medicine

Brief ACT workshops can be presented to parents in local communities within support groups, churches, and social clubs. Values driven decision making is highly congruent and consistent with organizational efforts toward better living. Additionally, the prevalence and cost of experiential avoidance is often consistent with missions of these groups and ACT based interventions are very useful in highlighting these topic areas. Activities and content of successful workshops in this setting are highlighted in this poster. Areas of hexaflex topic coverage for one-time, brief workshops to help parents in coping and decision making are presented.

39. Significant correlation between social anxiety disorder and higher education: results from a community sample
Subtopic: Social Anxiety Disorder
Marsha Chinichian, B.S., Michelle G Craske, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
Taylor Harris, B.A., Michelle G Craske, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
Halina Dour, M.A., Michelle G Craske, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles

Problem Statement: Epidemiological studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with significant functional impairment (Wittchen and Beloch, 1996). This relation may be moderated by demographic factors. For example, those with lower education level or occupational status may have fewer cognitive, financial, social, and medical resources to cope with their anxiety and thus demonstrate increased functional impairment compared to those with higher levels of education or occupation.

Purpose of Study: The current study sought to examine whether demographic factors such as occupational status predicted functional interference as a result of social anxiety. Further, age was tested as a moderator to this relation. We hypothesized that lower levels of occupational status would be associated with poorer outcome only among a lower age group; however, among older age groups, with greater resources (increased financial and social stability) occupational status would have a diminished effect on impairment.
Research Methods: Data were collected at baseline from 182 participants treated for social anxiety in a randomized treatment trial using standard evidence-based treatments. Participants’ current psychopathology was assessed using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV) – a structured interview that generates an interference rating on a 0-8 scale. Higher scores indicate greater symptom impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the moderation model.

Findings: As expected, occupational status was associated with impairment as a result of social anxiety (r=0.16, p<0.05). Further, age moderated this relation (b=-0.31, SE=0.012, p<0.05). Post hoc analyses indicated a significant relation between occupational status and impairment only among those whose ages were below the mean (age 37).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that lower occupational status is associated with decreased impairment as a result of their social anxiety among younger adults. Implications of these results for treatment and education will be discussed.

Keywords: age, education, anxiety, distress, interference

40. Increasing global freedoms: preliminary insight into the role of psychological flexibility in helping behaviour
Subtopic: Psychometric assessment
Miles Thompson, DClinPsy, Institute of Management Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London
Frank Bond, Ph.D., Institute of Management Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London

Around the world, the endeavours of individuals, families and communities continue to be constrained and thwarted by poverty, lack of resources and a lack of basic human rights. While much of the work to increase these global freedoms takes place in the developing world, parallel work is also warranted in the developed world. Psychology might help such endeavours by predicting and influencing the helping behaviour of members of the general public. This poster presents the preliminary validation of five questionnaires designed to increase our understanding of helping behaviour, particularly the impact of ACT processes. The five questionnaires assess: the perceived importance of helping, actual helping behaviour, everyday psychological flexibility, cognition and emotion. Data from 600 individuals is presented and the inter-relationship between the five measures is discussed. The findings from this research will inform the development and implementation of brief ACT intervention designed to increase helping behaviour.

41. Parenting and psychological flexibility in adolescents: a six-year longitudinal study
Subtopic: adolescents; parenting; psychological flexibility
Kathryn Williams, B.A., University of Wollongong
Joseph Ciarrochi Ph.D., University of Western Sydney
Patrick Heaven Ph.D., Australian Catholic University

Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes mindful, flexible, values-congruent responding to environmental demands and internal experiences. We examined links between parenting and the development of psychological flexibility among 749 students at five Australian schools over six years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.30 years). Parenting was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling confirmed that authoritarian (high control, low warmth) parenting in Grade 7 predicted lower psychological flexibility in Grades 9 to 12. Low psychological flexibility in Grade 12 was associated with increasing control and decreasing warmth (i.e., more authoritarian, less authoritative parenting) over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later changes in parenting. This study highlights the role of parenting in the development of psychological flexibility and the possibility that inflexible adolescents may influence their parents to become less flexible.

42. Evaluation of Bicyclists' Behavior Before and After a Share the Road Campaign
Subtopic: University populations
Mariel Parman, University of Mississippi
Karen Kate Kellum, University of Mississippi
Kelly G. Wilson, University of Mississippi

The Office of Sustainability and Associated Student Body developed and implemented a Share the Road campaigned which aimed to promote safety awareness for all users of the road. For one week at the student union, people signed pledges to share the road with others and received information on how to increase their safety. Pledges have been found increase pedestrian safety (Boyce & Geller, 2000), but there is no published evidence to date about using such pledges in bike safety campaigns. The campaign also included various public service announcements and stories in local media. Observers recorded a number of key safety behaviors of bicyclists at a busy intersection on campus for 4 weeks prior to the intervention for the remainder of the semester (10 weeks). Safe behaviors included riding in the correct lane, stopping at the stop sign at the intersection and wearing a helmet. Unsafe behaviors included riding in the wrong lane, riding on the sidewalk, running the stop sign, and talking on the phone while riding. The Office of Sustainability and Associated Student Body developed and implemented a Share the Road campaigned which aimed to promote safety awareness for all users of the road and put these users in a frame of coordination. For one week at the student union, people signed pledges to share the road with others and received information on how to increase their safety. Pledges have been found increase pedestrian safety (Boyce & Geller, 2000), but there is no published evidence to date about using such pledges in bike safety campaigns. The campaign also included various public service announcements and stories in local media. Observers recorded a number of key safety behaviors of bicyclists at a busy intersection on campus for 4 weeks prior to the intervention for the remainder of the semester (10 weeks). Safe behaviors included riding in the correct lane, stopping at the stop sign at the intersection and wearing a helmet. Unsafe behaviors included riding in the wrong lane, riding on the sidewalk, running the stop sign, and talking on the phone while riding.

Professional Development

43. Relational Insight Meditation as a Practice for Therapists Interested in Enhancing Psychological Flexibility
Subtopic: Mindfulness
Lori Ebert, Ph.D., Duke University Medical Center
Gregory Kramer, Ph.D., Metta Foundation

In order to be able to effectively deliver ACT it is essential that therapists be able to apply the ACT frame in their own lives. Cultivating a personal meditation practice is one vehicle for deepening the psychological flexibility established through the core processes of ACT. Research also suggests that meditation can enhance therapeutic factors beneficial for delivering ACT skillfully including attentional capacity, empathy, and self compassion. Meditation is traditionally an individual silent practice. Conversely, psychotherapy in an inherently relational practice that involves speaking and listening. Insight dialogue (Kramer, 2007) is a relational insight meditation practice designed to bring the mindfulness and reflection of silent meditation directly into interpersonal relationships. As such, Insight Dialogue offers therapists who are interested in cultivating a meditation practice the potential for greater integration between meditation and psychotherapy. This presentation will provide an overview of Insight Dialogue, including an explanation the six practice guidelines and discussion of applications to ACT. Evaluation findings examining the impact of Insight Dialogue retreat participation on measures of mindfulness and self-compassion and perceptions of self and others will also be presented.

Relational Frame Theory

44. What kind of “non-verbal” intelligence predicts relational flexibility? : The relationship between performance on IRAP and Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS).
Subtopic: IRAP
Asako Sakano, Graduate school of psychology, Doshisha University
Takashi Muto, Department of Psychology, Doshisha University
Naoko Kishita, Doshisha University, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Tomu Ohtsuki, Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University

The current study investigated the relationship between psychological flexibility assessed by Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) and non-verbal intelligence assessed by Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS), a measure of four cognitive processes; planning, attention, simultaneous processing, and successive processing. Forty-nine high school students (10 male, 39 female) completed a before/after and similar/different IRAP tasks, and subsequently took DN-CAS. The response latencies and the difference-score provided measures of psychological flexibility. Results showed that higher total IQ, especially attention IQ, predicted faster responding on consistent and inconsistent trials of both IRAP tasks. On the other hand, there were not consistency between response latencies and other three IQ subtests. These findings suggest that attention is essential for relational flexibility. In addition, higher IQ score on DN-CAS predicted more difference between consistent trials and inconsistent trials. Further study is needed to investigate the relationship between accuracy on IRAP and score of DN-CAS.

45. Experimental analysis of cognitive defusion from RFT perspective: Effect of contextual control over transformation of stimulus function
Subtopic: cognitive defusion
Tomu Ohtsuki, Ph.D., Waseda University
Naoko Kishita, M.A., Doshisha University
Takashi Muto, Ph.D., Doshisha University

To analyze the nature of cognitive defusion from RFT, we investigated the effect of multiple exemplar training procedure on establishment of generalized contextual control over the transformation of stimulus function. Two 4-member stimulus equivalence classes (A:linear, B:circular, C:triangle, D:quadrangle) were established using MTS task. Following the MTS training and testing, two B stimuli were used to establish the discriminative functions. After that, participants were exposed to training in which behaving in accordance with transformation of function was differentially reinforced (C stimuli) or punished (D stimuli) depending on the presence of a class of physical features of the stimuli. Finally, new equivalence classes were established and test for generalized contextual control were presented. If participants failed to show the generalized contextual control, they were exposed to same training again. These MTS, test, and training were repeated up to 3 stimuli sets. Seven of 8 participants showed the generalization of contextual control.

46. Are people more accepting of others than they are of themselves? An IRAP Study of perfectionism, acceptance & perspective taking.
Subtopic: IRAP
Rachel Lowdon, NHS Lothian
David Gillanders, University of Edinburgh
Massimo Tarsia, NHS Lothian

Background: This research examines associations between perfectionism and acceptance for the self and others, alongside their link with psychological health.

Method: Ninety-nine university students completed measures of self-oriented and other-oriented perfectionism, unconditional self-acceptance, acceptance of others and general health; together with an IRAP computer task that operationalised acceptance, perfectionism and perspective taking.

Results: Self-perfectionism scores were observed to be significantly higher than other-perfectionism scores on both explicit and implicit measures. Acceptance of others was significantly higher than self-acceptance on explicit measures; however the two were not significantly different on the IRAP. In addition, explicit measures did not correlate with implicit measures. Low levels of explicit self-acceptance were the biggest predictor of psychological distress.

Conclusions: These data provide further support for the use of acceptance-based strategies in the treatment of maladaptive perfectionism. The divergence between implicit and explicit findings is discussed.

47. Coherence as a Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer
Subtopic: Rule Governed Behavior
Desiree Carnathan, B.A., University of Mississippi
Michael J. Bordieri, M.S., University of Mississippi
Karen Kate Kellum, Ph.D., University of Mississippi
Kelly G. Wilson, Ph.D., University of Mississippi

The purpose of this investigation is to extend our understanding of the role coherence plays in complex human verbal behavior. Put simply, coherence can be defined as relating arbitrary concepts in ways that go together and it is the means by which humans make sense of the world. Previous research has demonstrated that this act of coherent relational responding has many of the same properties of non-verbal behavior in that it can be shaped and reinforced by the environment. It has long been theoretically assumed that coherence itself serves as a reinforcer in verbally competent humans; yet to our knowledge this claim only been subjected to limited empirical testing. Preliminary data collected demonstrated that undergraduate participants asked to match novel stimuli in a computerized match to sample preparation allocated responding in ways consistent with previous non-reinforced testing trials in the absence of any programmed consequences. These obtained results lend support to the view that coherence is a generalized conditioned reinforcer and additional participants will be assessed to further examine this phenomenon. Results and implications for future inquiry into coherence and higher order verbal behavior will be discussed.

Supervision, Training, and Dissemination

48. Preliminary study of therapist training for acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) therapists in Japan
Subtopic: Anxiety
Takashi Mitamura, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Doshisha University
Takashi Muto, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Doshisha University

As cognitive behavioral therapy has recently been proven effective, therapist training is in urgent need. As part of the third wave of behavior therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) requires highly trained ACT therapists. In this preliminary study, a workshop for Japanese therapists, who already administer ACT or intend to do so, is conducted, and the purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness and challenges of the workshop. A seven-hour workshop was conducted for twenty-four trainees; consequently, their competency in ACT therapy improved statistical significantly. Future challenges include the need for developing standard measures of therapist competence and determining the specific components of the workshop that improve trainee competency.

49. Assessing the effectiveness of ACT training in Sierra Leone
Subtopic: Low and Middle Countries
Ross White, Ph.D., DClinPsy, University of Glasgow
Corinna Stewart, University of Glasgow
Beate Ebert, commit + act

Commit + act is dedicated to bringing psychotherapeutic support to traumatized people in areas of conflict. In February/March of 2012, representatives of commit + act visited Sierra Leone to deliver workshops in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to local health and social workers. A 3-day introductory workshop and a 2-day advanced workshop were held in Freetown, followed by a 3-day intrdouctory workshop in Bo. A total of over 90 people attended the various workshops. To help evaluate the impact of the training, attendees completed measures both immediately before and after the workshops. The measures included the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, the Valuing Questionnaire, the Primary Care PTSD Screen, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. In addition, attendees completed a demographics form and a survey evaluating the workshops. This poster presents data relating to changes in attendees’ pre and post-workshop scores on the various measures used.

50. A Training Program in Third-Generation Psychotherapy based on Contextual Behavioral Science
Subtopic: dissemination, training
Lic. Juan Pablo Coletti, Fundacion Foro

The poster shows a training program in Third-Generation Psychotherapy conducted in Argentina and rooted in Functional Contextualism. The program is one year long and develops a solid foundation in the theory and practice of this approach to psychotherapy. It covers the philosophical rationale behind its therapeutic models and the practical experience gathered through its application in clinical practice. The objective of the course is to complement the training provided through workshops conducted by visiting international experts. The program currently has fifteen students -thirteen psychologists and two psychiatrists. The poster shows the advantages of a program of this type.

Theoretical and Philosophical Foundations

51. The Impact of Acceptance, Suppression, and Cognitive Reappraisal of Emotion on Hunger, Desire, Craving, and Eating Behavior
Subtopic: Obesity and eating behavior
Jill Stoddard, Ph.D, Alliant International University, CSPP
Jacqueline W. Israel, B.A., Alliant International University, CSPP
Niloo Afari, Ph.D, University of California, San Diego

The current study will aim to better understand potential cognitive mechanisms involved in overeating among overweight and obese individuals. Specifically, the proposed study will investigate the relative impact of acceptance, suppression, and cognitive reappraisal of emotion on cravings, distress, and eating. 180 overweight and obese individuals will be randomly assigned to an Acceptance, Suppression, Cognitive Reappraisal, or No Instruction group. Participants will be asked to undergo an emotion induction exercise, after which they will receive instructions, based on group assignment, for how to manage any emotions that arise during the induction. Measures of craving, distress, and eating behavior will be taken at baseline and after recovery. Additional measures of cognitive control, acceptance, mindfulness, and food and eating will also be taken at baseline. Repeated measures ANOVA will be used to investigate main effects and interactions of time and group. Multiple regression analyses will be used to identify baseline predictors. Data collection is expected to begin March 2012. Results of this study may provide a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms underlying food-related behaviors in overweight and obese individuals. Findings may inform prevention efforts, treatment development, or treatment improvement for the ongoing obesity health crisis.

52. Characteristics of behavioral variability in experiential avoidance students.
Subtopic: AAQ
Aiko Oya, Graduate School of Psychology, Doshisha University
Kazuha Nakase, Undergraduate School of Psychology, Doshisha University
Takashi Muto, Department of Psychology, Doshisha University

The behavioral variability is said to be relate to the human creativity. This study examined whether the response sequences generated by the students with high experiential avoidance are more rigid compared to those of the students with high acceptance, and whether the sequence variability in those can be increased by providing the direct reinforcement. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II). Participants were divided into two groups; the high experiential avoidance group and high acceptance group. All students participated in a computer-game consisted of two phases. The response sequence variability during the computer-game was recorded. When reinforcement was provided independently of the sequence variability, the participants in the experiential avoidance group showed higher variability in their responding compared to the acceptance group. When high sequence variability was required, the variability significantly increased in all participants, with the participants in the experiential avoidance group achieving the same level of the variability as the acceptance group.

53. Experiential Avoidance Relates to Sensitivity to Punishment and High Risk Driving Behavior
Subtopic: High Risk Driving
Anthi Loutsiou, Univeristy of Cyprus
Georgia Panayiotou, Univeristy of Cyprus

We investigated the relation between Experiential Avoidance (EA) and sensitivity to reward or punishment in a community sample of male drivers (N=202, M age=19.5, S.D=1.29). EA was expected to have a stronger correlation to sensitivity to punishment and to worse driving behaviors. Participants completed the Greek versions of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) (Hayes et al, 2004), the Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ - Torrubia et al. 2001), and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) (Reason et al., 1990). High-risk drivers (N=46; score≥5.06) included participants who scored 1SD or higher above the mean of the sample (M=4.10, sd=1,05) on the DBQ/Ordinary Violations. Those who scored 1SD or more below the mean were classified as the low risk drivers (N=48; score≤3.05). Drivers high on EA (i.e. low scores on AAQ) reported higher sensitivity to punishment on the SPSRQ (r=-.19, p≤.01). The correlation between AAQ and Sensitivity to Reward was not significant (r=-104, p=.17). An ANOVA showed significant differences in AAQ scores among high and low risk drivers (F(1,78)=4.32, p≤.05). Specifically, low-risk drivers scored higher on the AAQ, suggesting more emotional flexibility, (M=38.89, sd=5.14) as compared to the high-risk drivers who scored lower on the AAQ, suggesting more experiential avoidance, (M=36.69, sd=4.22). Findings point to an escape-from-punishment function of EA. Risky driving behaviour may function to escape from internal experience.

54. Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Processes Fully Mediate the Relation between Worry and Quality of Life: A Multiple Mediation Analysis
Subtopic: Chronic Worry
Matthew R. Donati, University at Albany, SUNY
Kristin N. Herzberg, University at Albany, SUNY
Samantha Callahan, University at Albany, SUNY
Krystal N. Cox, University at Albany, SUNY
Eric Petrone, University at Albany, SUNY
John P. Forsyth, University at Albany, SUNY

Chronic and excessive worry is a core concern of those suffering from General Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Excessive worry and GAD have been linked to impaired well-being, diminished life satisfaction (Stein & Heimberg, 2004), and poor quality of life (QoL) (Henning et al., 2007). Though the prevalence and deleterious effects of excessive worry are well documented, far less is known about the functions of worry and how and why it contributes to human suffering and diminished QoL (Roemer & Orsillo, 2007). Recent work, grounded in the model of psychopathology underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), suggests that the deleterious impact of chronic worry on a range of psychosocial outcomes can be traced back to specific maladaptive processes, chief among them being experiential avoidance (EA). Furthermore, EA, as well as related elements, including a lack of mindfulness and self-compassion, are thought to contribute to maladaptive control over private content, further leading to psychological and behavioral inflexibility, impeding effective action toward valued ends, and yielding a decreased quality of life. Several studies have demonstrated a significant link between EA and worry (Roemer et al., 2005) and suggested inverse relations between GAD and ACT-related elements, such as self-compassion (Roemer & Orsillo, 2007), mindfulness (Roemer et al., 2009), and valued action (Michelson et al., 2011). However, further research is necessary to understand the exact role of these proposed mechanisms of change in relation to worry. Moreover, few studies to date have examined the relations between worry and quality of life in the context of putative ACT-relevant processes that may, either in whole or in part, mediate such relations (Roemer & Orsillo, 2007). Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relation between worry and QoL and the proposed mechanisms of change that may account for this relation.

To examine these relations, healthy undergraduates from the University at Albany, State University of New York (N = 433) completed a battery of well-established and psychometrically sound measures assessing excessive worry, QoL, and several ACT-related mechanisms of change, including acceptance (or conversely EA), mindfulness, and self-compassion. We predicted that, taken together, the posited ACT-related process variables, including EA, would account for the relationship between worry and QoL. Indeed, using a series of tests of multiple mediation, we found that the relation between worry and QoL was fully mediated by the assessed ACT-related process variables. These results as well as the implications of the findings will be presented in the context of understanding the toxic nature of worry itself and interventions that may ameliorate worry-related suffering from an ACT point of view.

EXPO

55. Contextual behavioural science needs you to become a trainer!
Subtopic: Training (ACT Peer reviewed trainer process)
David Gillanders, Chair ACBS Training Committee, University of Edinburgh

Contextual behavioural science represents a progressive science of human functioning, with tight coherence between philosophy, theory, technology, effectiveness and training. An important vehicle for pursuing these values is the growth of a community of scientists and practitioners, across the whole world. CBS’s growth is rapid. Anecdotal evidence suggests that in areas where ACBS peer reviewed ACT trainers live and work, there are growing communities of ACT and CBS practitioners. The peer review process ensures that trainers are delivering high fidelity, high quality training. The community of trainers is an important vehicle for the growth of CBS. If you delivering or are thinking of delivering training, stop by this poster and have a conversation. We’ll answer questions and give you advice and encouragement about the ACT peer review for trainer process. If growing CBS is a value for you, come by – this community needs you to help it grow!

56. MSc Global Mental Health, University of Glasgow
Subtopic: Recruiting Students
Ross White, Ph.D., DClinPsy, University of Glasgow

The new MSc Global Mental Health programme at the University of Glasgow aims to educate people about inequalities in how mental health difficulties are treated across the globe. Students will gain the skills and knowledge to develop and implement policies aimed at reducing the burden of mental illness worldwide. Students will learn how to integrate mental health initiatives into the wider aims of international development and address the global inequities in the provision of mental health services. Teaching will be delivered in intensive two-week blocks delivered on campus, enabling students to undertake the programme alongside existing career and training commitments. The learning outcomes for the programme are based on the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health that were identified in a 2011 issue of Nature. We have collaborative partnerships with organisations working in low and middle income countries. Students will have opportunities to complete placements and projects with these organisations.

57. Doctoral Programs in Psychology at the University of Mississippi
Subtopic: Recruiting
Solomon Kurz, B.A., University of Mississippi
Karen Kate Kellum, Ph.D., University of Mississippi
Kelly G. Wilson, University of Mississippi

The Department of Psychology at the University of Mississippi offers programs of study that lead to the doctor of philosophy in two separate areas: clinical psychology and experimental psychology. The clinical program has been fully accredited by the American Psychological Association since 1974. It is a scientist-practitioner model program that emphasizes an empirical approach to clinical practice. Clinical and research supervision is available from behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches. The clinical program is designed to provide a sequence of research and practical experiences that require students to function at increasing levels of autonomy and independence. We provide the grounding for these experiences in a rigorous sequence of courses that are taken early in the program. The experimental program includes a behavioral neuroscience program of study. Experimental students in this area of concentration take courses and seminars in neuroscience methods, neurobiology, psychopharmacology, pharmacology, toxicology, and biostatistics. State-of-the-art research experiences are offered in the study of the behavioral effects of psychotherapeutic and abused drugs, neurochemical analysis of monoamines using in vivo dialysis, striatal and hippocampal behavioral function using stereotaxic techniques, and evaluation of neural tissue through histological techniques.

58. University of Louisiana at Lafayette Master's Program in Psychology
Subtopic: Recruitment
Emily K. Sandoz, Ph.D., University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Matthieu Villatte, Ph.D., University of Louisiana at Lafayette
David R. Perkins, Ph.D., University of Louisiana, Lafayette

59. ACBS - SIG for the Advancement of Contextual Education Science
Subtopic: SIG Information/Recruiting
ACBS SIG for the Advancement of Contextual Education Science, ACBS

The mission of the Contextual Behavior Science- Education Special Interest Group is to provide a forum to organize, discuss, debate, and foster the products of Contextual Behavior Science as they relate to all matters of education. The SIG embraces traditional educational topics, populations, and settings but also topics and populations characteristic of clinical, social, business, and public settings. All approaches based on a contextual approach are welcome such as precision teaching, RFT based approaches, or direct instruction. The membership will be open to anyone interested in matters of education and instruction from a contextual science perspective. The list includes but is not limited to those who practice or are interested in basic researcher, education, instruction, training, learning, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Analysis, Direct Instruction, Precision Teaching, standard measurement, Evidence Based Instruction, staff training, educational policy, philosophy, Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention, School Psychology. Take the opportunity to find out more about how to get involved with the ACBS ACES!

Linda Hamilton, Beyond Addiction

Activate simultaneously self as content, self as context and self as process to regain the experience of wholeness in the present moment. I developed this as a practice personally and then introduced the practice to my clients. By daily meditating with the CHANGE PURSE and Pic-ing a new value to become your daily intention and behavior we can consciously create a day of choice.

61. Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Behavioral Science

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