Hayes et al., 2004

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APA Citation: 

Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Bissett, R., Piasecki, M., Batten, S. V., Byrd, M., & Gregg, J. (2004). A preliminary trial of Twelve-Step Facilitation and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with polysubstance-abusing methadone-maintained opiate addicts. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 667-688.

Publication Topic: 
ACT: Empirical
Publication Type: 
Methadone, ACT, Intensive Twelve Step Facilitation

The present study compared methadone maintenance alone to methadone maintenance in combination with 16 weeks of either Intensive Twelve-Step Facilitation (ITSF) or Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in a preliminary efficacy trial with polysubstance-abusing opiate addicts who were continuing to use drugs while on methadone maintenance. Results showed that the addition of ACT was associated with lower objectively assessed opiate and total drug use during follow-up than methadone maintenance alone, and lower subjective measures of total drug use at follow-up. An intent-to-treat analysis which assumed that missing drug data indicated drug use also provided support for the reliability of objectively assessed total drug use decreases in the ACT condition. ITSF reduced objective measures of total drug use during follow-up but not in the intent-to-treat analyses. Most measures of adjustment and psychological distress improved in all conditions, but there was no evidence of differential improvement across conditions in these areas. Both ACT and ITSF merit further exploration as a means of reducing severe drug abuse.

A large randomized controlled trial was conducted with polysubstance abusing opiate addicted individuals maintained on methadone. Participants (n=114) were randomly assigned to stay on methadone maintenance (n=38), or to add ACT (n=42), or Intensive Twelve Step Facilitation (ITSF; n=44) components. There were no differences immediately post-treatment. At the six-month follow-up participants in the ACT condition demonstrated a greater decrease in objectively measured (through monitored urinalysis) opiate use than those in the methadone maintenance condition (ITSF did not have this effect). Both the ACT and ITSF groups had lower levels of objectively measured total drug use than did methadone maintenance alone.
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