Empirical Support

Printer-friendly version

This list includes research articles that contain original data relevant to RFT.

We are doing our best to update this page, but for the most up-to-date list, visit the publications database and choose "RFT: Empirical" as a search term.

When logged in, ACBS members can add child pages to update this with new literature -- learn how here.

As of the beginning of 2009, there are about 150 empirical articles that are either on RFT ideas, or very closely related.

2010

Hooper, N., Saunders, S., & McHugh, L. (2010). The derived generalization of thought suppression. Learning and Behavior.

Barnes-Holmes, D., Murtagh, L., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Stewart, I. (2010). Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to measure attitudes towards meat and vegetables in vegetarians and meat-eaters. The Psychological Record.
One of the first two empirical studies to test the validity of the IRAP by comparing it to the IAT using a "known-groups" approach. The studies also introduce the use of the D-IRAP algorithm.

2009

Barnes-Holmes, D., Waldron, D., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Stewart, I. (2009). Testing the validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) and the Implicit Association Test (IAT): Measuring attitudes towards Dublin and country life in Ireland. The Psychological Record, 59, 389-406.
One of the first two empirical studies to test the validity of the IRAP by comparing it to the IAT using a "known-groups" approach. The studies also introduce the use of the D-IRAP algorithm.

Dawson, D. L., Barnes-Holmes, D., Gresswell, D. M., Hart, A. J. P., & Gore, N. J. (2009). Assessing the implicit beliefs of sexual offenders using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: A First Study. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21, 57-75.

Power, P. M., Barnes-Holmes, D., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Stewart, I. (2009). The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a measure of implicit relative preferences: A first study. The Psychological Record, 59, 621-640.
The first IRAP study that involved using comparative relations as a means of determining implicit relative preferences for different social groups. This was also the first study to show a clear divergence between responses on the IRAP and an explicit measure.

Gross, A. C., & Fox, E. J. (2009). Relational frame theory: An overview of the controversy. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 25, 87-98.

Vahey, N. A., Barnes-Holmes, D., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Stewart, I. (2009). A first test of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a measure of self-esteem: Irish prisoner groups and university students. The Psychological Record, 59, 371-388.
The first empirical study that aimed to develop a self-esteem IRAP.

Lipkens, G. & Hayes, S. C. (2009). Producing and recognizing analogical relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 91, 105-126.
Article shows for the first time that relating relations can be the basis of producing related events, selecting relations, or selecting related events.

Murphy, C. & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2009). Establishing derived manding for specific amounts with three children: An attempt at synthesizing Skinner's verbal behavior and relational frame theory. Psychological Record, 59(1), 75-91.

O'Connor, J., Rafferty, A., Barnes-Holmes, D. & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2009). The role of verbal behavior, stimulus nameability and familiarity on the equivalence performances of autistic and normally developing children.Psychological Record, 59(10), 53-74.

O'Toole, C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2009). Three chronometric indices of relational responding as predictors of performance on a brief intelligence test: The importance of relational flexibility. The Psychological Record, 59(1), 119-132.
The first empirical study that used the IRAP to investigate the relationship between relational responding and IQ. Although not reported in the article, the research allowed us to determine that the D-IRAP algorithm appears to control for individual differences in cognitive ability.

2008

Barnes-Holmes, D., Hayden, E., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Stewart, I. (2008). The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a response-time and event-related-potentials methodology for testing natural verbal relations: A preliminary study. The Psychological Record, 58, 497-516.
The first empirical study of the IRAP. The article also provides a brief potted history of the research that led to the development of the procedure.

Dymond, S., Roche, B., Forsyth, J.P., Whelan, R. & Rhoden, J. (2008). Derived avoidance learning: Transformation of avoidance response functions in accordance with same and opposite relational frames. The Psychological Record, 58, 269-286.
This interesting study demonstrated that participants will demonstrate avoidance based on the stimulus relations of “same” and “opposite.” Control participants provided evidence that the transformation was a direct product of a relational learning history. Although equivalence may account for the finding, the explanation is circuitous.

Gavin, A., Roche, B., & Ruiz, M. R. (2008). Competing contingencies over derived relational responding: A behavioral model of the implicit association test. The Psychological Record, 58, 427-441.

Ju, W. C. & Hayes, S. C. (2008). Verbal establishing stimuli: Testing the motivative effect of stimuli in a derived relation with consequences. The Psychological Record, 58, 339-363.

McHugh, L., & Reed, P. (2008). Using Relational Frame Theory to build grammar in children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions. The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 2.4-3.1, 60-77.

O'Hora, D., Pelaez, M., Barnes-Holmes, D., Rae, G., Robinson, K., & Chaudhary, T. (2008). Temporal relations and intelligence: Correlating relational performance with performance on the WAIS-III. The Psychological Record, 58, 569-584.

Pérez-González, L.A., Herszlikowicz, K. & Williams, G. (2008). Stimulus relations analysis and the emergence of novel intraverbals. Psychological Record, 58, 95-129.

Roche, B. T., Kanter, J. W., Brown, K. R., Dymond, S., & Fogarty, C. C. (2008). A comparison of "direct" versus "derived" extinction of avoidance responding. The Psychological Record, 58, 443-464.

Roche, B. & Dymond, S. (2008). A transformation of functions in accordance with the nonarbitrary relational properties of sexual stimuli. Psychological Record, 58, 71-94.

Vitale, A., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Campbell, C. (2008). Facilitating responding in accordance with the relational frame of comparison: Systematic empirical analyses. The Psychological Record, 58, 365-390.

Weinstein, J. H., Wilson, K. G., Drake, C. E., & Kellum, K. K. (2008). A Relational Frame Theory Contribution to Social Categorization. Behavior and Social Issues, 17, 39-64.

2007

Berens, N. M., & Hayes, S. C. (2007). Arbitrarily applicable comparative relations: Experimental Evidence for relational operants. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 45-71.
In a combined multiple baseline (across responses and participants) and multiple probe design (with trained and untrained stimuli), it was shown that reinforced multiple exemplar training facilitated the development of arbitrary comparative relations, and that these skills generalized not just across stimuli but also across trial types.

Cahill, J., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., Rodríguez-Valverde, M., Luciano, C., & Smeets, P. M. (2007). The derived transfer and reversal of mood functions through equivalence relations II. The Psychological Record, 57, 373-389.

Dougher, M. J., Hamilton, D., Fink, B., & Harrington, J. (2007). Transformation of the discriminative and eliciting functions of generalized relational stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 88(2), 179-197.
Transformation of respondent stimulus functions via more-than/less-than direct and derived relations.

Gómez, S., López, F., Martín, C.B., Barnes-Holmes, Y. & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2007). Exemplar training and a derived transformation of functions in accordance with symmetry and equivalence. Psychological Record, 57(2), 273-294.
This is a very straightforward study programming transformation of function with young children. The first experiment simply exposed four children to action-object exemplar training and tested for symmetry. Experiment two enhanced transformation via multiple exemplar training; effectively demonstrating the ability to program stimulus relations via exemplar training.

Gaynor, S. T., Washio, Y. & Anderson, F. (2007). The conjunction fallacy: A derived stimulus relations conceptualization and demonstration experiment. The Psychological Record, 57, 63-85.

Luciano, M. C., Gómez, I., & Rodríguez, M. (2007). The Role of Multiple-Exemplar Training and Naming in Establishing Derived Equivalence in an Infant. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

McHugh, L., Barnes-Holmes, Y. & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2007). Deictic relational complexity and the development of deception. Psychological Record, 57(4), 517-531.

McHugh, L., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., Whelan, R. & Stewart, I. (2007). Knowing me, knowing you: Deictic complexity in false-belief understanding. Psychological Record, 57(4), 533-542.

McKenna, I. M., Barnes-Holmes, D., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Stewart, I. (2007). Testing the fake-ability of the implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP): the first study. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, (7)2, 123-138.
The first empirical study that sought to determine if the IRAP can be readily faked.

O'Toole, C., Barnes-Holmes, D. & Smyth, S. (2007). A derived transfer of functions and the Implicit Association Test.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 88(2), 263-283.

Rehfeldt, R., Dillen, J. E., Ziomek, M. M. & Kowalchuk, R. K. (2007). Assessing Relational Learning Deficits in Perspective-Taking in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder. The Psychological Record, 57, 23-47.

Rosales, R. & Rehfeldt, R.A. (2007). Contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations to establish derived manding skills in adults with severe developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(1), 105-121.

Schlund, M.W., Hoehn-Saric, R. & Cataldo, M.F. (2007). New knowledge derived from learned knowledge: Functional-anatomic correlates of stimulus equivalence. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 87(2), 287-307.

2006

Barnes-Holmes, D., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Power, P., Hayden, E., Milne, R., & Stewart, I. (2006). Do you really know what you believe? developing the implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP) as a direct measure of implicit beliefs. The Irish Psychologist, (32)7, 169-177.

Dixon, M.R., Rehfeldt, R.A., Zlomke, K.R. & Robinson, A. (2006). Exploring the development and dismantling of equivalence classes involving terrorist stimuli. Psychological Record, 56, 83-103.
This paper describes 2 studies that present a conceptual interpretation and experimental findings involving developing and dismantling of equivalence classes consisting of terrorist stimuli. Results of experiment 1 showed that participants made predictable responses to stimuli during pretest, however made fewer culturally controlled responses after training. Experiment 2 showed that it was easy to acquire relations involving terrorist stimuli when compared to two other conditions. Implications are discussed.

Dixon, M. R., Zlomke, K. M., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2006). Restoring Americans’ Nonequivalent Frames of Terror: An Application of Relational Frame Theory. The Behavior Analyst Today, 7(3), 275-289.

Haas, J. R., & Hayes, S.C. (2006). When knowing you are doing well hinders performance: Exploring the interaction between rules and feedback. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 26, 91-111.
The effect of two types of verbal consequences, rule-following feedback and task performance feedback, on rule-induced insensitivity to programmed schedules of reinforcement were examined. Rule-following feedback could be either accurate or non-contingently positive. The task involved moving a sign through a grid using telegraph keys operating on a multiple DRL 6/FR 18 schedule of reinforcement in the presence of an initially accurate rule. After acquisition, the multiple schedule was changed without notice to a FR 1/FI Yoked schedule. Accurate rule-following feedback plus feedback on task performance produced striking insensitivity to the DRL 6 to FR 1 schedule change, the opposite of what might be expected by a common sense analysis of task performance feedback, even after controlling for contact with the changed contingency. It is argued that findings such as these can only be understood by considering the mutual verbal relations evoked by the combinations of rules and feedback, rather than treating feedback as a simple consequential event or as a verbal consequence whose effects do not depend on the relations sustained with other events.

McHugh, L., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D. & Stewart, I. (2006). Understanding false belief as generalized operant behavior. Psychological Record, 56(3), 341-364.

Ninness, C., Barnes-Holmes, D., Rumph, R., McCuller, G., Ford, A. M., Payne, R., et al. (2006). Transformations of mathematical and stimulus functions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 299-321.

Smeets, P. M., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Striefel, S. (2006). Establishing and reversing equivalence relations with precursor to the relational evaluation procedure. The Psychological Record, 56(2), 267-286.

Smyth, S., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Forsyth, J. P. (2006). A derived transfer of simple discrimination and self-reported arousal functions in spider fearful and non-spider fearful participants. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 85(2), 223-246.
This article used the stimulus paring observation procedure to demonstrate transformation of arousal functions, and provided further evidence that anxiety responses can participate in arbitrary relational frames and produce problematic clinical outcomes.

Valdivia, S., Luciano, C., & Molina, F. J. (2006). Verbal regulation of motivational states. The Psychological Record, 56, 577-595.

Whelan, R., Barnes-Holmes, D. & Dymond, S. (2006). The transformation of consequential functions in accordance with the relational frames of more-than and less-than. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 86(3), 317-335.

2005

Barnes-Holmes, D., Regan, D., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Commins, S., Walsh, D., Stewart, I., et al. (2005). Relating derived relations as a model of analogical reasoning: reaction times and event-related potentials. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 84(3), 435-451.
This study used event related potentials to test the RFT prediction that same-same relations are simpler and functionally distinct different-different analogical reasoning. Reaction times were significantly longer, and waveforms were significantly more negative for different-different than they were for same-same relations. This is consistent with the prediction based on RFT.

Dixon, M.R. & Zlomke, K.M. (2005). Implementación del precursor del procedimiento de evaluación relacional en el establecimiento de marcos relacionales de igualdad, oposición y diferencia. = Using the precursor to the relational evaluation procedure (PREP) to establish the relational frames of sameness, opposition, and distinction. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 37(2), 305-316.

Gutiérrez-Martí¬nez, O., Luciano-Soriano, M. C., & Valdivia, S. (2005). Change of self-efficacy verbalizations and derivation of functions. Psicothema, 17, 625-630.

Merwin, R.M. & Wilson, Kelly G. (2005). Preliminary findings on the effects of self-referring and evaluative stimuli on stimulus equivalence class formation. Psychological Record, 55, 561-575.

Murphy, C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2005). Derived manding in children with autism: Synthesizing Skinner's verbal behavior with relational frame theory. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38(4), 445-462.

Ninness, C., Rumph, R., McCuller, G., Harrison, C., Ford, A. M., & Ninness, S. K. (2005). A functional analytic approach to computer-interactive mathematics. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 , 1-22.
One of the first uses of RFT in higher education. Here is the abstract: Following a pretest, 11 participants who were naive with regard to various algebraic and trigonometric transformations received an introductory lecture regarding the fundamentals of the rectangular coordinate system. Following the lecture, they took part in a computer-interactive matching-to-sample procedure in which they received training on particular formula-to-formula and formula-to-graph relations as these formulas pertain to reflections and vertical and horizontal shifts. In training A-B, standard formulas served as samples and factored formulas served as comparisons. In training B-C, factored formulas served as samples and graphs served as comparisons. Subsequently, the program assessed for mutually entailed B-A and C-B relations as well as combinatorially entailed C-A and A-C relations. After all participants demonstrated mutual entailment and combinatorial entailment, we employed a test of novel relations to assess 40 different and complex variations of the original training formulas and their respective graphs. Six of 10 participants who completed training demonstrated perfect or near-perfect performance in identifying novel formula-to-graph relations. Three of the 4 participants who made more than three incorrect responses during the assessment of novel relations showed some commonality among their error patterns. Derived transfer of stimulus control using mathematical relations is discussed.

Ninness, C., Rumph, R., McCuller, G., Vasquez III, E., Harrison, C., Ford, A.M., et al. (2005b). A relational frame and artificial neural network approach to computer-interactive mathematics. Psychological Record, 55, 135-153.

O'Hora, D., Â Pelaez, M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2005). Derived relational responding and performance on verbal subtests of the WAIS-III. The Psychological Record, 55(1), 155-175.

Rehfeldt, R.A. & Dymond, S. (2005). The effects of test order and nodal distance on the emergence and stability of derived discriminative stimulus functions. Psychological Record, 55(2), 179-196.

Rehfeldt, R. A. & Root, S. L. (2005). Establishing derived requesting skills in adults with severe developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 101-105.

Reilly, T., Whelan, R., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2005). The effect of training structure on the latency responses to a five-term linear chain. The Psychological Record, 55(2), 233-249.

Smeets, P.M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2005a). Auditory-visual and visual-visual equivalence relations in children. The Psychological Record, 55(3), 483-503.

Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes D. (2005b). Establishing equivalence classes in preschool children with many-to-one and one-to-many training protocols. Behavioural Processes, 69(3), 281-293.

Whelan, R., Cullinan, V. & O'Donovan, A. (2005). Derived same and opposite relations produce association and mediated priming. = Mismas Relaciones derivadas y Opuestas Producen la Asociación y la Preparación Mediada.International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 5(3), 247-264.

2004

Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (2004). Establishing relational responding in accordance with opposite as generalized operant behavior in young children. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 559-586.

Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., Smeets, P. M., & Luciano, C. (2004). The derived transfer of mood functions through equivalence relations. The Psychological Record, 54, 95-114.

Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., Smeets, P. M., Strand, P., & Friman, P. (2004). Establishing relational responding in accordance with more-than and less-than as generalized operant behavior in young children.International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 531-558.

Barnes-Holmes, D., Staunton, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Whelan, R., Stewart, I., Commins, S., et al. (2004). Interfacing Relational Frame Theory with cognitive neuroscience: Semantic priming, The Implicit Association Test, and event related potentials. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 215-240.

Carpentier, F., Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2004). Equivalence-equivalence: Matching stimuli with same discriminative functions. The Psychological Record, 54, 145-162.

Carpentier, F., Smeets, P. M., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Stewart, I. (2004). Matching derived functionally-same relations: Equivalence-equivalence and classical analogies. The Psychological Record, 54, 255-273.

McHugh, L., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2004). Perspective-taking as relational responding: A developmental profile. The Psychological Record, 54, 115-144.

This article describes traditional tasks that relate to what developmental literature calls “Theory of Mind. ” Its goals were to develop and test a protocol across groups in several different developmental stages (young children through adulthood) that indicated that perspective taking could be described in terms of relational responding (arbitrarily applicable, mutually entailed, combinatorily entailed, and showing transformation of stimulus function) and that added but did not contradict the traditional and developmental literature. Study 1 tested the protocol, Study 2 tested whether young children’s poor response was an artifact of word length, and Study 3 tested whether the experimenter’s cues affected responding. Results from three studies indicated indeed that perspective taking can be viewed as an operant, and that deictic frames across three levels of complexity were functionally distinct classes of behavior. A developmental profile emerged, showing that derived relational responding develops with age as well as relational complexity. Further, I-YOU relations emerge before HERE-THERE and NOW-THEN relations, and NOW-THEN relations produced the most errors in all participants regardless of age.

O'Hora, D., Barnes-Holmes, D., Roche, B., & Smeets, P. M. (2004). Derived relational networks and control by novel instructions: A possible model of generative verbal responding. The Psychological Record, 54, 437-460.
Results from two studies examining instructional control on novel stimulus situations are described. The researchers employed the Relational Evaluation Procedure to train relations and then tested these in novel situations. Results support the idea that novel instructions can control behavior and that RFT provides an adequate model for the generativity of language.

Roche, B., Linehan, C., Ward, T., Dymond, S., & Rehfeldt, R. (2004). The Unfolding of the Relational Operant: A Real-time Analysis Using Electroencephalography and Reaction Time Measures. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 4(3), 587-603.

Valverde, M., Luciano, M. C., Gutiérrez Martí nez, O., & Hernández López, M. (2004). Tranfer of latent inhibition of aversively conditioned autonomic responses through equivalence classes. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 605-622.

Stewart, I., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2004). A functional-analytic model of analogy using the relational evaluation procedure. The Psychological Record, 54, 531-552.
This study provides an empirical demonstration of analogy using the Relational Evaluation Procedure (REP), a recently developed technique for the rapid training and testing of derived stimulus relations. The experiment involved 9 stages in which 5 adult male subjects were exposed to a complex series of REP training and testing protocols, by the end of which they each readily demonstrated 24 completely novel instances of responding in accordance with analogical relations as conceptualized by RFT.

Smeets, P. M., van Wijngaarden, M., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Cullinan, V. (2004). Assessing stimulus equivalence with a precursor to the relational evaluation procedure. Behavioural Processes, 65, 241-251.

Whelan, R., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2004a). The transformation of consequential functions in accordance with the relational frames of same and opposite. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 82, 177-195.
Formative augmenting, behavior due to relational networks that establish given consequences as reinforcers or as punishers, was demonstrated in accordance with Same and Opposite relational networks. Some stimuli acquired reinforcing functions, based on the derived relation of Opposite, although in some cases no such function had actually been established for any member of the network. These effects were also observed across ABA reversals in the baseline contingencies.

Whelan, R., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2004b). Empirical models of formative augmenting in accordance with the relations of same, opposite, more-than, and less-than. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 285-302.
Authors demonstrated through two experiments that stimuli acquired reinforcing functions based on derived relational networks. This research supports the idea of formative augmenting: the degree to which events function as consequences was altered based on relational networks of Same and Opposite and more-than and less-than.

2003

Carpentier, F., Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2003a). Equivalence-equivalence as a model of analogy: Further analyses. The Psychological Record, 53, 349-372.
This study attempted to train equivalence-equivalence relations with 5-year-old children. Only 8 of 18 showed equivalence-equivalence relations when tested. The procedure was then tested with adults and was successful with all of them.

Carpentier, F., Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2003b). Matching unrelated stimuli with same discriminative functions: Training order effects. Behavioural Processes, 60, 215-226.

Carr, D. (2003). Effects of exemplar training in exclusion responding on auditory-visual discrimination tasks with children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 507-524.
Showed that multiple-exemplar training with auditory-visual exclusion tasks facilitated nonreinforced exclusion performances which reduced error rates on subsequent novel stimulus sets.

Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2003). Children's emergent preferences for soft drinks: Stimulus-equivalence and transfer. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 603-618.

Smeets, P. M., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Akpinar, D. & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2003). Reversal of equivalence relations. The Psychological Record, 53, 91-120.

2002

Carpentier, F., Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2002a). Establishing transfer of compound control in children: A stimulus control analysis. The Psychological Record, 52, 139-158.

Carpentier, F., Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2002b). Matching functionally-same relations: Implications for equivalence-equivalence as a model for analogical reasoning. The Psychological Record, 52, 351-312.
This study tested equivalence-equivalence and nonequivalence-nonequivalence relations with adults, 9-year-olds, and 5-year-olds. Most of the adults and 9-year-olds demonstrated these relations, but the 5-year-olds did not.

Dougher, M., Perkins, D. R., Greenway, D., Koons, A., & Chiasson, C. (2002). Contextual control of equivalence-based transformation of functions. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78, 63-94.
Transformation of functions among members in equivalence classes

Gomez, S., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Luciano, M. C. (2002). Generalized break equivalence II: Contextual control over a generalized pattern of stimulus relations. The Psychological Record, 52, 203-220.
Building on the work of Gomez et al (1999; 2001), the authors established effective contextual control over the Generalised Break Equivalence Pattern (GBEP) which provides further support for the generalized operant nature of derived relational responding.

Luciano, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2002). Establishing reports of saying and doing and discriminations of say-do relations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23, 406-421.

Markham, M.R., Dougher, M.J. & Augustson, E.M. (2002). Transfer of operant discrimination and respondent elicitation via emergent relations of compound stimuli. Psychological Record, 52(3), 325-350.

O'Hora, D., Roche, B., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P. (2002). Response latencies to multiple derived stimulus relations: Testing two predictions of Relational Frame Theory. The Psychological Record, 52, 51-75.
The authors measured response latencies to mutually entailed same, opposite, more-than, and less-than relations. Response latencies to same and opposite relations were significantly faster than more-than and less-than relations. A second experiment showed a gradual decrease in response latency for more/less relations across a novel stimulus set.

Stewart, I., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B., & Smeets, P. M. (2002a). Stimulus equivalence and non-arbitrary relations. The Psychological Record, 52, 77-88

Stewart, I., Barnes-Holmes, D., Roche, B., & Smeets, P. M. (2002b). A functional-analytic model of analogy: A relational frame analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78, 375-396.
This study explored a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning, defined as the discrimination of formal similarity via equivalence-equivalence responding. Equivalence classes were trained, and subjects responded according to equivalence-equivalence relations. Subjects discriminated by shape or color of a relata. Transformation of stimulus functions of a block-sorting task based on this model of analogy was also shown.

2001

Barnes-Holmes, Y. Barnes-Holmes, D. Roche, B, & Smeets, P. M. (2001a). Exemplar training and a derived transformation of function in accordance with symmetry: I. The Psychological Record, 51, 287- 308.
This paper demonstrates that multiple exemplar training provides the necessary history to establish transformation across symmetry relations. Four studies confirmed that after relatively few exemplar training sessions, transformation could occur even across response modalities.

Barnes-Holmes, Y. Barnes-Holmes, D. Roche, B, & Smeets, P. M. (2001b). Exemplar training and a derived transformation of function in accordance with symmetry II. The Psychological Record, 51, 589-603.
This study clears some questions raised by Part I. Specifically, the authors found that naming is not a critical component of transformation, and children could readily demonstrate transformed functions in accordance with symmetry with no history of naming. The third part of the study examined the effects of pre-training. Results suggest that pre-training may be effective, but if not, to forgo additional pre-training and move immediately to multiple exemplar training.

Cullinan, V. A., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (2001). A precursor to the relational evaluation procedure: Searching for the contextual cues that control equivalence responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 76, 339-349.

Fitzgerald, D. L. (2001). The effects of fluency in the acquisition of conditional, symmetric, and equivalence relations on the emergence of derived relational responding and the contextual control of relational behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61(9-B).

Gomez, S., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Luciano, M. C. (2001). Generalized break equivalence I. The Psychological Record, 51, 131-150.
The objective of this study was to produce responding in accordance with symmetry and transitivity but not with equivalence across novel stimulus sets. Building on the work of Gomez et al (1999), the authors employed several new procedures to generate ‘broken’ equivalence relations which provides support for the generalized operant nature of derived relational responding.

Leader, G., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2001). Establishing fraction-decimal equivalence using a respondent-type training procedure. The Psychological Record, 51, 151-166.

Leader, G., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2001). Matching-to-sample and respondent-type training as methods for producing equivalence relations: Isolating the critical variable. The Psychological Record, 51, 429-444.

Luciano, M. C., Herruzo, J., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2001). Generalization of say-do correspondence. The Psychological Record, 51, 111-130.

Lyddy, F., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Hampson, P. J. (2001). A transfer of sequence function via equivalence in a connectionist network. The Psychological Record, 51, 409-428.

O'Hora, D., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Developing a procedure to model the establishment of instructional control. Experimental Analysis of Behavior Bulletin, 19, 13-15.
The authors measured response latencies to mutually entailed same, opposite, more-than, and less-than relations. Response latencies to same and opposite relations were significantly faster than more-than and less-than relations. A second experiment showed a gradual decrease in response latency for more/less relations across a novel stimulus set.]

Smeets, P. M., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Derived stimulus-response and stimulus-stimulus relations in children and adults: Assessing training order effects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 78, 130-154.

Osborne, J.G. & Koppel, L. (2001). Acquisition, generalization, and contextual control of taxonomic and thematic relational responding. Psychological Record, 51(2), 185-205.

Stewart, I., Barnes-Holmes, D., Roche, B., & Smeets, P. M. (2001). Generating derived relational networks via the abstraction of common physical properties: A possible model of analogical reasoning. The Psychological Record, 51, 381-408.
This study demonstrated equivalence-equivalence responding based on the abstraction of common formal properties.

2000

Augustson, E.M., Dougher, M.J. & Markham, M.R. (2000). Emergence of conditional stimulus relations and transfer of respondent eliciting functions among compound stimuli. Psychological Record, 50(4), 745-770.
Transfer of respondent eliciting functions occurs even among compound stimuli.

Barnes-Holmes, D., Keane, J., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Smeets, P. M. (2000). A derived transformation of emotive functions as a means of establishing differential preferences for soft drinks. The Psychological Record, 50, 493-511.

Carpentier, F., Smeets, P. M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2000). Matching compound samples with unitary compounds: Derived stimulus relations in adults and children. The Psychological Record, 50, 671-686.

Carr, D., Wilkinson, K. M., Blackman, D., & McIlvane, W. J. (2000). Equivalence classes in individuals with minimal verbal repertoires. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 74, 101-115.

Cullinan, V. A., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (2000). A precursor to the relational evaluation procedure. II.The Psychological Record, 50, 467-492.

Healy, O., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P.M. (2000). Derived relational responding as generalised operant behaviour. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 74, 207-227.
Demonstrated that response patterns on novel stimulus sets was controlled by the feedback delivered for previous stimulus sets.

Leader, G., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (2000). Establishing equivalence relations using a respondent-type training procedure III. The Psychological Record, 50, 63-78.
Similar to the study above but with young children as subjects.

Roche, B., Barnes-Holmes, D., Smeets, P. M., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & McGeady, S. (2000). Contextual control over the derived transformation of discriminative and sexual arousal functions. The Psychological Record, 50, 267-291.
Following on from Roche and Barnes (1997) and McGeady and Roche (1997), the authors demonstrate four distinct contextually-controlled transformations of function by presenting the contextual cue along with the derived stimuli. Skin resistance responses and operant discriminations are measured. Still the only study to employ such a testing format.

Smeets, P.M., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Cullinan, V. (2000). Establishing equivalence classes with match-to-sample format and simultaneous-discrimination format conditional discrimination tasks. The Psychological Record, 50, 721-744.

Smeets, P. M., Dymond, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2000). Instructions, stimulus equivalence, and stimulus sorting: Effects of sequential testing arrangements and a default option. The Psychological Record, 50, 339-354.

1999

Gomez, S., Huerta, F., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Luciano, C. (1999). Breaking equivalence relations. Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Bulletin, 17, 1-4.
The objective of this study was to produce responding in accordance with symmetry and transitivity but not with equivalence, across novel stimulus sets.

Smeets, P. M., Barnes, D., & Luciano, C. M. (1999). Reversal of emergent simple discrimination in children: A component analysis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 60(3), 327-343.

1998

Cullinan, V. A., Barnes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (1998). A precursor to the relational evaluation procedure: Analyzing stimulus equivalence.The Psychological Record, 48, 121-145.

Dymond S. & Barnes D. (1998). The effects of prior equivalence testing and verbal instructions on derived self-discrimination transfer: A follow-up study. Psychological Record 48(1), 147-170.
A follow-up study to Dymond & Barnes (1994). Subjects were not given equivalence training this time but were instead trained in a series of conditional discriminations. Also, some subjects were given extensive instructions and others were given minimal instructions. Neither of these factors affected the subjects performance and the results from previous experiments were replicated.

Hayes, S. C., & Bissett, R. (1998). Derived stimulus relations produce mediated and episodic priming. The Psychological Record, 48, 617-630.
Showed that priming effects that are well known in semantically related words also occurred in nonsense stimuli related through equivalence.

Healy, O., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P.M. (1998). Derived relational responding as an operant: The effects of between-session feedback. The Psychological Record, 48, 511-536.
Delivering accurate or inaccurate feedback to subjects following a test for derived equivalence relations produces responding on subsequent tests that is consistent with that feedback. One of the first to demonstrate the operant nature of relation responding.

1997

Barnes, D., Hegarty, N., & Smeets, P. M. (1997). Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 14, 57-83.
This study examined the RFT approach to analogical reasoning. Subjects were trained on several equivalence relations. They were then shown pairs of relata in which both of the relata were from the same relation or in which both relata were from different relations. The subjects successfully matched pairs of same with same and different with different.

McGeady, S. & Roche, B. (1997). A contextually controlled transformation of operant response functions in accordance with arbitrarily applicable relations. Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Bulletin, 15, 12-13.

Roche, B., & Barnes, D. (1997). A transformation of respondently conditioned sexual arousal functions in accordance with arbitrary relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 67, 275-301.
The first study to show a transformation of respondently conditioned sexual arousal functions, measured as skin resistance responses, through same and opposite relations. An excellent demonstration of how to conduct complex electrodermal research within an RFT framework.

Roche, B., Barnes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (1997). Incongruous stimulus pairing and conditional discrimination training: Effects on relational responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 68, 143-160.

Smeets, P., & Barnes, D. (1997). Emergent conditional discrimination in children and adults: Stimulus equivalence derived from simple discriminations. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 64-84.

Smeets, P., Barnes, D., & Roche, B. (1997). Functional equivalence in children. Derived stimulus-response and stimulus-stimulus relations. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 1-17.

Smeets, P.M., Leader, G., & Barnes, D. (1997). Establishing stimulus classes with adults and children using a respondent training procedure: A follow-up study. The Psychological Record, 47, 285-308.

1996

Barnes, D., Lawlor, H., Smeets, P. M., & Roche, B. (1996). Stimulus equivalence and academic self-concept in mildly mentally handicapped and non-mentally handicapped children. The Psychological Record, 46, 87-107.
Using educationally-relevant real world stimuli such as "slow" and "able" as well as the subject's own name, the authors show how developmentally-delayed children come to fail tests for equivalence when the predicted outcome is in contrast to their learning history. That is, subjects did not relate their own name to "able." A neat study on prior-learning effects in equivalence formation.

Dymond, S. & Barnes, D. (1996). A transformation of self-discrimination response functions in accordance with the arbitrarily applicable relations of sameness and opposition. The Psychological Record, 46, 271-300.
Demonstrates a transformation of functions in accordance with sameness and oppositon, using several matching-to-sample control tasks to prevent formation of simple equivalence and nonequivalence relations.

Grey, I., & Barnes, D. (1996). Stimulus equivalence and attitudes. The Psychological Record, 46, 243-270.

Leader, G., Barnes, D., & Smeets, P.M. (1996). Establishing equivalence relations using a respondent-type training procedure. The Psychological Record, 46, 685-706.
The first in a series of studies investigating a new procedure for the derivation of equivalence relations. “Training” merely involves observing on-screen presentations of stimulus pairs and then testing for equivalence using a match-to-sample format. More effective in establishing equivalence than standard MTS arrangements.

Roche, B., & Barnes, D. (1996). Arbitrarily applicable relational responding and sexual categorization: A critical test of the difference relation. The Psychological Record, 46, 451-475.
After Steele & Hayes, the first study to systematically examine the relational frame of distinction using socially-loaded stimuli. This study inspired a series of exchanges between the authors and Richard Saunders in the same volume on the relationship between equivalence and RFT.

Smeets, P., Barnes, D., & Schenk, J., & Darcheville, J., (1996). Emergent simple discriminations and conditional relations in children, adults with mental retardation, and normal adults. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49(B), 201-219.

Wilson, K. G. & Hayes, S. C. (1996). Resurgence of derived stimulus relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 66, 267-281.

1995

Barnes, D., Browne, M., Smeets, P., & Roche, B. (1995). A transfer of functions and a conditional transfer of functions through equivalence relations in three- to six-year-old children. The Psychological Record, 45, 405-430.
Transfer and contextually-controlled transfer in kids of different ages with the older subjects passing the more complex tests. A nice example of a nonautomated transfer study.

Dymond, S. & Barnes, D. (1995). A transformation of self-discrimination response functions in accordance with the arbitrarily applicable relations of sameness, more-than, and less-than. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64, 163-184. Erratum, 66, 348.
The first study to show three patterns of derived relational responding in accordance with sameness, more-than, and less-than. Alternative explanations for the transformation test outcomes are considered and found wanting. The relational network figure has been reproduced in several different publications

Smeets, P. M., & Barnes, D. (1995). Emergent simple discrimination via transfer from differentially reinforced S+ stimuli: A further test of the stimulus-response interaction model. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48B(4), 329-345.

Smeets, P., Barnes, D., & Luciano, C. (1995). Total reversal of emergent simple discrimination in children: A component analysis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 60, 327-343.

Smeets, P., Schenk, J., & Barnes, D. (1995). Establishing arbitrary stimulus classes via identity matching training and non-reinforced matching with complex stimuli. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48B(4), 311-328.

1994

Barnes, D. (1994). Stimulus equivalence and relational frame theory. The Psychological Record, 44, 91-124.
A cogent introduction to RFT in which the author compares "Sidman equivalence" with RFT, offers a respondent analysis of symmetry, and predicts various outcomes of training designs. Good for an undergraduate introduction to the area

Cullinan, V., Barnes, D., Hampson, P. J., & Lyddy, F. (1994). A transfer of explicitly and nonexplicitly trained sequence responses through equivalence relations: An experimental demonstration and connectionist model. The Psychological Record, 44, 559-585.

Dougher, M. J., Augustson, E., Markham, M. R., Greenway, D. E., & Wulfert, E. (1994). The transfer of respondent eliciting and extinction functions through stimulus equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 62, 331-351.
One of the early articles studying the transfer of respondent eliciting functions.

Dymond, S., & Barnes, D. (1994). A transfer of self-discrimination response functions through equivalence relations.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 62, 251-267.
Four subjects were trained in matching-to-sample tasks and equivalence relations. They showed the expected transfer of self-discrimination response functions. Four control subjects either received training in matching to sample but were not tested on equivalence or were trained and tested using stimuli not used in the transfer test. None of these showed the transfer of self-discrimination response functions.

Hayes, L. J., Brenner, K., & Hayes, S. C. (1994). Assessing pre-existing stimulus relations via stimulus equivalence.Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 20, 146-166.

1993

Barnes, D., & Hampson, P. (1993). Stimulus equivalence and connectionism: Implications for behavior analysis and cognitive science. The Psychological Record, 43, 617-638.

Barnes, D., & Keenan, M. (1993). A transfer of functions through derived arbitrary and non-arbitrary stimulus relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 59, 61-81.
An elegant demonstration of transfer of functions through equivalence relations, with and without a prior equivalence test, and a generalised transfer through non-arbitrary relations. One of the most-cited transfer articles.

Lipkens, R., Hayes, S. C., & Hayes, L. J. (1993). Longitudinal study of the development of derived relations in an infant. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 56, 201-239.
Showed the development of derived stimulus relations, including equivalence and exclusion, in a human infant.

Schusterman, R. J. & Kastak, D. (1993). A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is capable of forming equivalence relations. The Psychological Record, 43, 823-840.

Zentall, T. R., & Urcuioli, P. J. (1993). Emergent relations in the formation of stimulus classes in pigeons. The Psychological Record, 43, 795-810.

1991

Hayes, S. C., Kohlenberg, B. K., & Hayes, L. J. (1991). The transfer of specific and general consequential functions through simple and conditional equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 56,119-137.
Showed the transfer of consequential functions through equivalence relations, both simple and conditional.

Kohlenberg, B. S., Hayes, S. C., & Hayes, L. J. (1991). The transfer of contextual control over equivalence classes through equivalence classes: A possible model of social stereotyping. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 56, 505-518.
Showed that transfer effects extended to conditional stimuli that themselves regulated derived relational responding. Extends the analysis to social stereotyping

Steele, D., & Hayes, S. C. (1991). Stimulus equivalence and arbitrarily applicable relational responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 56, 519-555.
The first experimental demonstration that establishing cues that controlled non-arbitrary stimulus relations later produced multiple forms of derived relational responding with arbitrary stimulus sets. One of the first clear experimental demonstrations of RFT.

Watt, A., Keenan, M., Barnes, D., & Cairns, E. (1991). Social categorization and stimulus equivalence. The Psychological Record, 41, 33-50.
This study examined whether social categorization could be explored in terms of stimulus equivalence by testing whether equivalence training could be transferred to untrained social stimuli. The study had Irish Protestants, Irish Catholics and English Protestants go through a series of matching-to-sample procedures in which they were trained to match Protestant or Catholic stimuli with non-sense syllables. The findings suggest that previous learning might interfere with equivalence responding in the experimental training.

1990 and earlier

Barnes, D., McCullagh, P. D., & Keenan, M. (1990). Equivalence class formation in non-hearing impaired children and hearing impaired children. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 19-30.

Hayes, L. J., Thompson, S., & Hayes, S. C. (1989). Stimulus equivalence and rule following. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 275-291.
Authors describe results of two studies attempting to specify the relationship between verbal and nonverbal behavior in the context of rule following. Two stimulus equivalence relationships were trained and then subjects were tested for production of novel behavior. Novel behavior was produced in both the presence and absence of names provided for the equivalence classes.

De Rose, J. C., McIlvane, W. J., Dube, W. V., Galpin, V. C., & Stoddard, L. T. (1988). Emergent simple discrimination established by indirect relation to differential consequences. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 50, 1-20.
One of the early articles studying the transfer of stimulus functions among members in equivalent classes.

Wulfert, E., & Hayes, S. C. (1988). Transfer of a conditional ordering response through conditional equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 50, 125-144.

Hayes, S. C., Brownstein, A. J., Devany, J. M., Kohlenberg, B. S., & Shelby, J. (1987). Stimulus equivalence and the symbolic control of behavior. Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 13, 361-374.
Showed the transfer of discriminative functions through equivalence relations

Devany, J. M., Hayes, S. C., & Nelson, R. O. (1986). Equivalence class formation in language-able and language-disabled children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 46, 243-257.
Showed a correlation between receptive language skills and the derivation of equivalence. Interpreted this correlation in RFT terms, suggesting that the correlation was due to the functional overlap of the two tasks.
 

This page contains attachments restricted to ACBS members. Please join or login with your ACBS account.