Hayes, 1984

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APA Citation: 

Hayes, S. C. (1984). Making sense of spirituality. Behaviorism, 12, 99-110.

Publication Topic: 
ACT: Conceptual
RFT: Conceptual
Publication Type: 
Article
Language: 
English
Keyword(s): 
ACT, RFT
Abstract: 

In ordinary language a clear distinction is made between the world of matter and that of spirit. While dualism is typically thought to be incompatible with behaviorism, a behavioral analysis of self-awareness suggests that there are good reasons for dualistic talk. Reputed qualities of both the spiritual aspect of humans and of a metaphysical God seem to flow naturally from the analysis. The use of the spiritual facet of self in therapy is briefly discussed.

Comments: 
The first ACT article. The references in this article mentions ACT data presentations from 1982 (amazingly, the specific mention is of a piece that came out 17 years later in The Psychological Record, 1999, 49, 33-47). The analysis in this article on spirituality anticipates RFT, deictic frames, perspective taking, self-as-context, acceptance, defusion, and many other issues now of known importance. If you want to draw a line in the dirt and say "ACT / RFT started here" this article is the starting point.
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