Gifford et al., 2004

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APA Citation: 

Gifford, E. V., Kohlenberg, B. S., Hayes, S. C., Antonuccio, D. O., Piasecki, M. M., Rasmussen-Hall, M. L., & Palm, K. M. (2004). Applying a functional acceptance based model to smoking cessation: An initial trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 35, 689-705.

Publication Topic: 
ACT: Empirical
Publication Type: 
ACT, smoking, cessation, NRT

This pilot study applied a theoretically derived model of acceptance-based treatment process to smoking cessation, and compared it to a pharmacological treatment based on a medical dependence model. Seventy-six nicotine dependent smokers were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: Nicotine Replacement Treatment (NRT), or a smoking-focused version of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). There were no differences between conditions at post-treatment; however, participants in the ACT condition had better long-term smoking outcomes at one-year follow up. As predicted by the acceptance process model, ACT outcomes at one year were mediated by improvements in acceptance-related skills. Withdrawal symptoms and negative affect neither differed between conditions nor predicted outcomes. Results were consistent with the functional acceptance-based treatment model.

Medium sized randomized controlled trial comparing ACT to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as a method of smoking cessation. Quit rates were similar at post but at a one-year follow-up the two groups differed significantly. The ACT group had maintained their gains (35% quit rates) while the NRT quit rates had fallen (less than 10%). Mediational analyses shows that ACT works through acceptance and response flexibility.
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